Quoted from Wikipedia – Type la Supernova
- “Measuring the history of cosmic expansion is no easy task, but in recent years, a specific variety of supernovae, type Ia, has given us a first glimpse at that history and surprised us with an unexpected plot twist.”
- Their peak brightness seemed to be quite uniform, and they were bright enough to be seen at extremely large distances. In fact, a supernova can, for a few weeks, be as bright as an entire galaxy.
- The uniformity of the type “Ia supernovae” became even more striking when their spectra were studied in detail as they brightened and then faded.
- The detailed uniformity of the type Ia supernovae implies that they must have some common triggering mechanism.
- We could examine the rich stream of observational data from each individual explosion and match spectral and light-curve fingerprints to recognize those that had the same peak brightness.
- the few type Ia outliers—those with peak brightness significantly different from the norm—could generally be identified and screened out.
- The anomalously fainter supernovae were typically redder or found in highly inclined spiral galaxies (or both).
- veteran Swiss researcher Gustav Tammann and his student Bruno Leibengut first reported the amazing uniformity of type Ia supernovae,
- then the measurement of the changing expansion rate would also determine the curvature of space and tell us about whether the cosmos is finite or infinite.
- This approach also made it possible to use the Hubble Space Telescope for follow-up light-curve observations, because we could specify in advance the one-square-degree patch of sky in which our wide-field imager would find its catch of supernovae.
What’s wrong with faint supernovae?
- The faintness—or distance—of the high-redshift supernovae in figure 3 was a dramatic surprise.
- All that mass surely puts a lower limit on how far—that is, to what level of faintness— we must look to find a given red-shift. The high red-shift supernovae in figure 3 are, however, fainter than would be expected even for an empty cosmos.
- The standard model of particle physics has no natural place for a vacuum energy density of the modest magnitude required by the astrophysical data. The simplest estimates would predict a vacuum energy 10120 times greater. (In super-symmetric models, it’s “only” 1055 times greater.)
- Supernovae from that decelerating epoch should not get as faint with increasing distance as they would if dust or intrinsic evolutionary changes caused the dimming.
Pursuing the elusive dark energy
- The dark energy evinced by the accelerating cosmic expansion grants us almost no clues to its identity.
- The wide-ranging theories of dark energy are often characterized by their equation-of-state parameter w = p/r, the ratio of the dark energy’s pressure to its energy density.
- Given that the dark-energy density is now about twice the mass density, the only constraint on dark-energy models is that w must, at present, be more negative than –1/2 to make the cosmic expansion accelerate. However, most dark-energy alternatives to a cosmological constant have a w that changes over time.
- but also the cosmic microwave background, gravitational lensing of galaxies, and other cosmological observations, we have the prospect of taking the next step toward that “Aha!” moment when a new theory makes sense of the current puzzles.
- WMAP has detected, with very high significance, temperature shifts induced by hot gas in galaxy clusters.
- The CMB temperature in the direction of known galaxy clusters is expected to be slightly cooler than the average CMB temperature, due to interactions between CMB photons and the gas in the clusters. This effect has been observed in aggregate by WMAP and is consistent with analogous observations by the South Pole Telescope. Both observations are in conflict with extrapolated X-ray observations of clusters (X-rays probe a smaller volume of cluster gas than the CMB observations) and with numerical simulations, which must be missing some of the complex gas physics in the outer regions of the clusters.
- MAP has produced a visual demonstration that the polarization pattern around hot and cold spots follows the pattern expected in the standard model.
- The standard model predicts a specific linked pattern of temperature and polarization around hot and cold spots in the map. WMAP now sees the predicted pattern in the map, as shown in the figure. 
Intuitively one may assume the that total solar irradiance would decrease as the number of (optically dark) sunspots increased. However direct satellite measurements of irradiance have shown just the opposite to be the case. This means that more sunspots deliver more energy to the atmosphere, so that global temperatures should rise.
The cosmic rays that arise in extrasolar astrophysical sources are primary cosmic rays; these primary cosmic rays can interact with interstellar matter to create secondary cosmic rays. The Sun also emits low energy cosmic rays associated with solar flares. The remaining fraction is made up of the other heavier nuclei which are abundant end products of stars' nuclear synthesis.] 
- The type of “La supernova” has very distinguished and predicable behavior of 2 main types, one hotter than other which can be plotted on 2 light curves.
- “La supernova” has the brightest luminosity ever recorded (-19.4, +/-0.5) and the farthest range.
- “La supernova” emits huge amount of Dark materials, and ionize shocking waves that can bend stars.
- The theories behind such explosion are still theoretical models especially that power required for such explosion is not available in one star alone.
- Sunspots have a cycle of 11 years with ups and downs peaks.
- There is an evidence of effecting number of sunspots and Earth temperature with universe ionized shock waves.
The red stars have temperature from: 2,600 – 5,250 K
The white stars have temperature from: 5,500 – 10,000 K
The blue stars have temperature are starting from: 10,500 – 33,000
Higher Darker stars temperature, will be > 33,000 K.
- Being the People of Hell Fire are the “Left People” and covered by black smoke (Dark matter), knowing that “La supernova” as shown in the above figure has being allocated on the left of the universe: "And those on the Left Hand how (unfortunate) will be those on the Left Hand? (41) In fierce hot wind and boiling water. (42) And shadow of black smoke. (43) (That shadow) neither cool, nor (even) pleasant, (44)" [Al-Waqia]
- Hell Fire has 7 doors and it was mentioned 77 times in Quran as “Hell Fire”, giving 77 / 7 = 11, which equals to 11 years of Sunspot cycle, ups and downs figure. "It hath seven gates, and each gate hath an appointed portion." [Hejer 15:44]
- Hell Fire has 19 of Angel Keepers, and the brightness of “La supernova” which is the maximum measured is -19.4 (+/-0.5) !!
- And what will make you know (exactly) what Hell-fire is? (27) It spares not (any sinner), nor does it leave (anything unburnt)! (28) Burning and blackening the skins! (29) Over it are nineteen (angels as guardians and keepers of Hell). (30) And We have set none but angels as guardians of the Fire, and We have fixed number (19) only as a trial for the disbelievers, [Mudather]
This means that what we are seeing in “La supernova” is a breath released from Hell fire, and such information has the following benefits to all scientists who are working on “La Supernova” and Space Temperature projects:
- That really “La supernovas” are triggered by the same mechanism (which is Hell) and not related to white dwarfs explosions.
- That their light measurements that show they are from outside our universe (Hell) were correct and not to waste more time in calculating “W” to fit them in our universe dimensions.
- Since Hell Fire is being created on 7th day, means within 2 billion years period, so its light is newer but farther from our universe (this may help to understand more of its horrible attributes).
- The effect of ionizing shock waves on Earth temperature and Sunspots numbers. It’s not necessary that such rays are affecting the Sun that may affect the Earth later on, they could be affecting them both on the same time, and this must be verified by researchers later on.
- Also, this will help to determine exactly the effect of human warming on Earth temperature whether it’s really affecting or not.
- The injected dark matter inside universe whether it’s cold or hot matter, they are smokes from Hell, and studying such materials will explain us more about how it looks like.
- There is no relation between “La supernovas” and universe fate whether it will keep expanding or will shrink back, the answer on this is mentioned in Quran too and will be detailed later on later post of “The End of Story”.