Wednesday, June 29, 2011

The Story of Creation (13) – Oceans Waves, Sea Jewelry & Rivers Gold.


1.  Source of Water on Earth
2.  Ocean Current System
3.  Ocean Internal Waves
4.  Light Penetration Layers
5.  Waves Reflection
6.  Breaking Waves
7.  Tsunamis
8.   The Black Smokers
9.   The Boiling Sea
10.   Buoyancy & Ships Stability
11. Maritime Shipping
12. Estuary (Contact of Sea & River waters)
13. Rivers Geological Source
14. Rivers for our Benefit
15. Seas & Rivers Jewelry
16. Gold carried by Flood

1. Source of Water on Earth


Quoted from: Wikipedia - Origin of Water on Earth

The question of the origin of water on Earth, or the question of why there is clearly more water on the Earth than on the other planets of the Solar System, has not been clarified. There are several acknowledged theories as to how the world's oceans were formed over the past 4.6 billion years.


Some of the most likely contributory factors to the origin of the Earth's oceans are as follows:

1.    The cooling of the primordial Earth to the point where the outgassed volatile components were held in an atmosphere of sufficient pressure for the stabilization and retention of liquid water.
2.    Comets, trans-Neptunian objects or water-rich meteorites (protoplanets) from the outer reaches of the main asteroid belt colliding with the Earth may have brought water to the world's oceans. Measurements of the ratio of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and protium point to asteroids, since similar percentage impurities in carbon-rich chondrites were found to oceanic water, whereas previous measurement of the isotopes' concentrations in comets and trans-Neptunian objects correspond only slightly to water on the earth.
3.    Biochemically through mineralization and photosynthesis.
4.    Gradual leakage of water stored in hydrous minerals of the Earth's rocks.
5.    Photolysis: radiation can break down chemical bonds on the surface. [1]


Clearly, ALLAH says that water came from Earth itself, and not from comets as other theories:

وَالأَرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَاهَا (30) أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَاءَهَا وَمَرْعَاهَا (31) [النازعات]

And after that He spread the earth; (30) And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture; (31) [An-Nazeat]

Therefore, the theory number 4 in the above explanation is the correct one.

2. Ocean Current System


Quoted from: Ocean in Motion: Currents - Characteristics

Driven by forces such as wind, tides, and gravity, currents keep our oceans in constant motion. Currents move large amounts of water great distances. Countless currents have been named, but the seven major ones are the West Wind Drift (or the Antarctic Circumpolar Current), East Wind Drift, the North and South Equatorial currents, the Peru Current, the Kuroshio Current and the Gulf Stream. These currents flow in large rotating loops called gyres. In the Northern Hemisphere, gyres spin in a clockwise direction, and in the Southern Hemisphere, gyres spin in a counterclockwise direction. [2]


In a miraculous verse from Quran, ALLAH says the following:

او كظلمات في بحر لجي يغشاه موج من فوقه موج من فوقه سحاب ظلمات بعضها فوق بعض اذا اخرج يده لم يكد يراها ومن لم يجعل الله له نورا فما له من نور

Or [the state of a disbeliever] is like the darkness in a vast deep sea [Lujjey], overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by dark clouds, (layers of) darkness upon darkness: if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allâh has not appointed light, for him there is no light. (24:40)
Allah explains the darkness of unbelievers as someone in a dark sea, the word describes this sea is “Lujjey” which means as shown next: the frequent waves, and this word comes from “Lajj” which means in English “insistent & Repetitive”:

لجة البحر تردد أمواجه ، ولجة الليل : تردد ظلامه ، ومنه {في بحر لجي } ، أي عميق متردد الأمواج.

And since the verse is talking about the dark sea, which means the Ocean, it gives a sign that these seas have a current system of waves that is always constant and repetitive as explained above.

3. Ocean Internal Waves


Internal waves:

The temperature of the ocean decreases towards the bottom of the ocean. Therefore the density of ocean water increases towards the bottom. The deep ocean is layered with the densest water on bottom and the lightest water on top.
Internal waves form at the interfaces between layers of different water density. Internal ocean waves were first seen from space by American astronauts on their way to the moon (as odd large scale ripples). Now their existence is well documented, but there is still much to be learned.

Oscillations are more easily set up at an internal interface than at the sea-surface, because the difference in density between two water layers is smaller than between water and air. Hence, less energy is required to generate internal waves than surface waves of similar amplitude. Internal waves travel more slowly than surface waves of similar amplitude.
Surface waves can be up to 20 m high, while internal waves can reach a height of 300 m or more, dependent of the thickness of the upper water layer. [3]


This fact that is also mentioned in the same verse: 

او كظلمات في بحر لجي يغشاه موج من فوقه موج من فوقه سحاب ظلمات بعضها فوق بعض اذا اخرج يده لم يكد يراها ومن لم يجعل الله له نورا فما له من نور

Or [the state of a disbeliever] is like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by dark clouds, (layers of) darkness upon darkness: if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allâh has not appointed light, for him there is no light. (24:40)

The verse describes how if someone is trapped deeply inside an ocean, then he will be covered by a wave and top of it another wave, and this refers very clearly to Ocean internal waves and its surface waves.

4. Light Penetration Layers


This diagram offers a basic illustration of the depth at which different colors of light penetrate ocean waters. Water absorbs warm colors like reds and oranges (known as long wavelength light) and scatters the cooler colors (known as short wavelength light). [4]


In the same verse, ALLAH describes the darkness in deep ocean as layers over each others, which indicates the loss of each color till reaching the deepest water with full darkness that even someone can’t see his own hand:

او كظلمات في بحر لجي يغشاه موج من فوقه موج من فوقه سحاب ظلمات بعضها فوق بعض اذا اخرج يده لم يكد يراها ومن لم يجعل الله له نورا فما له من نور

Or [the state of a disbeliever] is like the darkness in a vast deep sea, overwhelmed with waves topped by waves, topped by dark clouds, (layers of) darkness upon darkness: if a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! And he for whom Allâh has not appointed light, for him there is no light. (24:40)

Knowing that deepest limit reached 30m depth only for ancient divers, and the verse is talking about many darknesses (i.e. color darknesses layers) which the first one, red layer, starts at 50m depth.

5.    Waves Reflection


Quoted from: Oceanography - Wave reflection

Like sound waves, surface waves can be bent (refracted) or bounced back (reflected) by solid objects. Waves do not propagate in a strict line but tend to spread outward while becoming smaller. Where a wave front is large, such spreading cancels out and the parallel wave fronts are seen travelling in the same direction. Where a lee shore exists, such as inside a harbour or behind an island, waves can be seen to bend towards where no waves are. In the lee of islands, waves can create an area where they interfere, causing steep and hazardous seas.
When approaching a gently sloping shore, waves are slowed down and bent towards the shore.
When approaching a steep rocky shore, waves are bounced back, creating a 'confused sea' of interfering waves with twice the height and steepness. Such places may become hazardous to shipping in otherwise acceptable sea conditions. [5]


The following verse explains when the ships are faced with heavy winds and how the waves start coming from all directions, and this due to waves’ reflection over ship body, causing the same method explained above about the reflection of waves because of solid object inside water, causing steeper waves with undefined direction:

هو الذي يسيركم في البر والبحر حتى اذا كنتم في الفلك وجرين بهم بريح طيبة وفرحوا بها جاءتها ريح عاصف وجاءهم الموج من كل مكان وظنوا انهم احيط بهم دعوا الله مخلصين له الدين لئن انجيتنا من هذه لنكونن من الشاكرين

He it is Who enables you to travel through land and sea, till when you are in the ships and they sail with them with a favorable wind, and they are glad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are encircled therein, Then they invoke Allâh, making their Faith pure for Him Alone, (saying): "If You (Allâh) deliver us from this, we shall truly be of the grateful." (10:22)

6.    Breaking Waves


Quoted from Wikipedia – Breaking waves

In fluid dynamics, a breaking wave is a wave whose amplitude reaches a critical level at which some process can suddenly start to occur that causes large amounts of wave energy to be transformed into turbulent kinetic energy. At this point, simple physical models that describe wave dynamics often become invalid, particularly those that assume linear behavior.

Breaking of water surface waves may occur anywhere that the amplitude is sufficient, including in mid-ocean. However, it is particularly common on beaches because wave heights are amplified in the region of shallower water (because the group velocity is lower there). [6]


The following verse is talking about such certain waves that appear as “Shades” over the sailors inside the oceans and not necessary on the shore only:

واذا غشيهم موج كالظلل دعوا الله مخلصين له الدين فلما نجاهم الى البر فمنهم مقتصد وما يجحد باياتنا الا كل ختار كفور

And when a wave covers them like shades they invoke Allâh, making their invocations for Him only. But when He brings them safe to land, there are among them those that stop in between (Belief and disbelief). But none denies Our Signs except every perfidious ingrate. [31:32]

And to have these waves, their amplitude must be high enough such as 3-5 meters so to appears above the boats, knowing they never appeared in Arabia region but on certain parts of the ocean where waves amplitude is high enough to have such “shade” shapes, as shown in the next map [7] that shows waves average height all over the world oceans: 

7. Tsunamis


Quoted from Wikipedia – Tsunamis

Tsunamis have a small amplitude (wave height) offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometers long, whereas normal ocean waves have a wavelength of only 30 or 40 metres), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a slight swell usually about 300 millimetres (12 in) above the normal sea surface. They grow in height when they reach shallower water, in a wave shoaling process described below. A tsunami can occur in any tidal state and even at low tide can still inundate coastal areas.

Tsunami generated by landslides

In the 1950s, it was discovered that larger tsunamis than had previously been believed possible could be caused by giant landslides. These phenomena rapidly displace large water volumes, as energy from falling debris or expansion transfers to the water at a rate faster than the water can absorb. Their existence was confirmed in 1958, when a giant landslide in Lituya Bay, Alaska, caused the highest wave ever recorded, which had a height of 524 metres (over 1700 feet). The wave didn't travel far, as it struck land almost immediately. Two people fishing in the bay were killed, but another boat amazingly managed to ride the wave. Scientists named these waves megatsunami. [8]


The above devastating waves whether caused by Tsunamis or even Hurricanes can reach 100’s of meters height when they reach coast and they have a wave length of 100’s of kilometers, the best description of these waves is mentioned in the following verse: waves as mountains describing the “flood” of Noah times:

وهي تجري بهم في موج كالجبال ونادى نوح ابنه وكان في معزل يا بني اركب معنا ولا تكن مع الكافرين

And it sailed with them amid waves like mountains, and Noah cried unto his son - and he was standing aloof - O my son! Come ride with us, and be not with the disbelievers. [11:42]

Knowing that Noah flood was caused by a volcanic Eruption (similar to Tsunamis cause), which will be explained in later posts, in God’s will.

8.    The Black Smokers


Quoted from: Black Smokers, Cold Seeps, Whale Falls

Black Smokers

The deep sea has huge volcanic ranges running down its middle, the mid-ocean ridges. There the crust is constantly splitting apart, with lava rising from the mantle below to fill the split. (more on divergent zones) Amid the lava and the freezing-cold water and crushing pressure of the deep sea, the ridge is peppered with vents of hot water, called black smokers.  At these super-hot springs the water, hitting the cold sea, turns black as the dissolved stuff in itsulfur and metals and silica, mostly—comes out of solution. [9]

Quoted from Wikipedia – Sulfur

Many sulfur compounds are odiferous, and the smell of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic is due to sulfur compounds. Hydrogen sulfide produced by living organisms imparts the characteristic odor to rotting eggs and other biological processes.
Sulfur burns with a blue flame concomitant with formation of sulfur dioxide, notable for its peculiar suffocating odor. [10]


Some of Islam haters like to use the following verse to attack the Quran as being word of God, but this is due to their sick and small minds, because the following verse is a real miracle:

حتى اذا بلغ مغرب الشمس وجدها تغرب في عين حمئة ووجد عندها قوما قلنا يا ذا القرنين اما ان تعذب واما ان تتخذ فيهم حسنا

Till, when he reached the setting-place of the sun, he found it setting in a muddy [hame’ah] spring, and found a people thereabout. We said: O Dhu'l-Qarneyn! Either punish or show them kindness. [18:86]

The verse talks about the King “Dhu’l Qarneyn” who reached the coast of the Atlantic ocean, and he saw the Sun as falling in a muddy spring, some thought that verse says that Sun itself is falling in a muddy spring, but the true meaning that it appears to him as falling in an “Ocean of a muddy spring”, but the word “Ocean” is not mentioned as Sun is not setting in the Ocean, but it will appear to anyone looking on sunset from shore.

The word “Hame’ah” has the following meanings: muddy, dark, stinky & hot, and all of them are attributes to the springs on the bottom of Atlantic oceans. Knowing that due to sulfur component the smell of these springs is stinky too. 

الحَمْأَةُ والحَمَأُ: الطين الأَسود المُنتن؛ وحَمِئَ الماءُ حَمْأً وحَمَأً خالطته الحَمْأَة فكَدِرَ وتَغَيرت رائحته وقرأَ ابن مسعود وابن الزبير: حاميةٍ، ومن قرأَ حامِية

Therefore, the Holy Quran gives different name which is more accurate than the “Black smokers” that is the “black stinky springs”.

9.    The Boiling Sea


Quoted from Wikipedia – Hawaii hotspot

As the seamount slowly grows, it goes through the shield stages. It forms many mature features, such as a caldera while submerged. The summit eventually breaches the surface, and the lava and ocean water "battle" for control as the volcano enters the explosive subphase. This stage of development is exemplified by explosive steam vents. This stage produces mostly volcanic ash, a result of the waves dampening the lava.

Hawaiian volcanoes follow a well-established life cycle of growth and erosion. After a new volcano forms, its lava output gradually increases. Height and activity both peak at about age 500,000 and then rapidly decline. Eventually it goes dormant, and eventually extinct. Erosion then weathers the volcano until it again becomes a seamount. [11]


In the following verse, ALLAH swears by the boiling Sea, which clearly exists on Hawaii islands hotspot as explained above.
والبحر المسجور
And the sea kept filled [Masjour: Boiled] [52:6]

Mistakenly, the word “Masjour” was translated as “filled”, although it means to boil or to heat as shown below:

والسَّجْرُ: إيقادك في التَّنُّور تَسْجُرُه بالوَقُود سَجْراً. والسَّجُورُ: اسم الحَطَب. وسَجَرَ التَّنُّورَ يَسْجُرُه سَجْراً: أَوقده وأَحماه، وقيل: أَشبع وَقُودَه. والسَّجُورُ: ما أُوقِدَ به.

10.    Buoyancy & Ships Stability


1- Buoyancy

Quoted from Wikipedia - Buoyancy

In physics, buoyancy is a force exerted by a fluid that opposes an object's weight. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus a column of fluid, or an object submerged in the fluid, experiences greater pressure at the bottom of the column than at the top. This difference in pressure results in a net force that tends to accelerate an object upwards. The magnitude of that force is equal to the difference in the pressure between the top and the bottom of the column, and is also equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the column. [12]

2- Ships Stability

Quoted from - Reading Stability Curve:

Let’s say something hits you with enough force to tip you into this region of the curve and you are lucky and don't tip over. Now another wave comes along and hits you with just slightly more force. You will now be pushed to a place with less ability to push you back. You need more supporting force, and instead you are getting less. Unless you brace you will inevitably go over. Because the curve is sloping downward any increase in tipping will provide a diminishing righting moment. Although the boat still is still providing a righting force, beyond the top of the stability curve this force will not feel very supporting because the slightest additional tipping force will push you down the slope.

Above are 5 different boats with their stability curves. Although the boats have varying widths, the waterline width and shape is the same in all boats. Notice how the slope of the curve near zero is nearly identical regardless of the different shapes above and below the waterlines. This is because initial stability is not dependant on the overall shape of the boat, only the waterline width and shape. [13]


1- Buoyancy

Allah mentions in Quran the ships and how we “humans” are carried on them and linked them with being carried on “cattle” too:

اللَّهُ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الأَنْعَامَ لِتَرْكَبُوا مِنْهَا وَمِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ (79) وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَنَافِعُ وَلِتَبْلُغُوا عَلَيْهَا حَاجَةً فِي صُدُورِكُمْ وَعَلَيْهَا وَعَلَى الْفُلْكِ تُحْمَلُونَ (80)
Allâh, it is He Who has made cattle for you, that you may ride on some of them and of some you eat. (79) And you have (many other) benefits from them, and that you may reach by their means a desire that is in your breasts (i.e. carry your goods, loads, etc.), and on them and on ships you are carried [up]. [40:79-80]

The verse used the word “Tuhmaloun” meaning lifted up, is an indication that to Buoyancy force that pushes the ships up and makes it flow over the water, similar to how animals carry humans on their back by pushing force upward against their weight, as shown in the next photo:

2- Ships Stability

The verse that uses to indicate ships is “Fulk” in many verses, including the following:

الله الذي خلق السماوات والارض وانزل من السماء ماء فاخرج به من الثمرات رزقا لكم وسخر لكم الفلك لتجري في البحر بامره وسخر لكم الانهار

Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth, and causeth water to descend from the sky, thereby producing fruits as food for you, and maketh the ships [Fulk] to be of service unto you, that they may run upon the sea at His command, and hath made of service unto you the rivers; [14:32]
ربكم الذي يزجي لكم الفلك في البحر لتبتغوا من فضله انه كان بكم رحيما

(O mankind), your Lord is He Who driveth for you the ship [Fulk] upon the sea that ye may seek of His bounty. Lo! He was ever Merciful toward you. [17:66]

Knowing that original meaning of “Fulk” is the rounded shape as in the following:

وفَلَكُ كل شيء: مُسْتداره ومُعْظمه. لفاء واللام والكاف أصلٌ صحيح يدلُّ على استدارةٍ في شيء. ج: أفْلاكٌ وفُلُكٌ، بضمتين، و~ من كلِّ شيءٍ: مُسْتَدارُه ومُعْظَمُه

Because of his mercy on his slaves, as if ALLAH saying to us: to make the ships of rounded shapes because it will be the most secure for us and more stable that need almost 76 degree to be tipped over, as shown in the red curve in above chart.

11.    Maritime Shipping


Quoted from Wikipedia - Maritime shipping
Much shipping is done aboard actual ships. An individual nation's fleet and the people that crew it are referred to its merchant navy or merchant marine. Merchant shipping is essential to the world economy, carrying 90% of international trade with 50,000 merchant ships worldwide. The term shipping in this context originated from the shipping trade of wind power ships, and has come to refer to the delivery of cargo and parcels of any size above the common mail of letters and postcards. [14]


Allah says in the Quran about the use of shipping:

الله الذي سخر لكم البحر لتجري الفلك فيه بامره ولتبتغوا من فضله ولعلكم تشكرون

Allah it is Who hath made the sea of service unto you that the ships may run thereon by His command, and that ye may seek of His bounty, and that haply ye may be thankful; [45:12]

ان في خلق السماوات والارض واختلاف الليل والنهار والفلك التي تجري في البحر بما ينفع الناس وما انزل الله من السماء من ماء فاحيا به الارض بعد موتها وبث فيها من كل دابة وتصريف الرياح والسحاب المسخر بين السماء والارض لايات لقوم يعقلون

Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of night and day, and the ships which run upon the sea with that which is of use to men, and the water which Allah sendeth down from the sky, thereby reviving the earth after its death, and dispersing all kinds of beasts therein, and (in) the ordinance of the winds, and the clouds obedient between heaven and earth: are signs (of Allah's Sovereignty) for people who have sense. [2:164]

Among most of the use in early history was shipping for fighting, fishing and for trading, although it was rarely that Arabs used ships for trading, they used the camels in Land conveys between Arabia, Syria and Yemen Only. It was not till Islam, and 3rd Caliph Othman who gave the permission to Arab Muslims to ride over the sea and start building their own ships.

Despite all of that, the verse above describes that main objective of the seas and ships running over them is not to fight or fishing but to carry people benefits (i.e. goods) between them, which was realized in latest centuries, and currently Maritime shipping is carrying over 90% of all world production. The next image [15] shows the shipping lanes density all over the world.

12.    Estuary (Contact of Sea & River waters)


Quoted from Wikipedia - Estuary

An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and ocean environments and are subject to both marine influences, such as tides, waves, and the influx of saline water; and riverine influences, such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The inflow of both seawater and freshwater provide high levels of nutrients in both the water column and sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. [16]

Quoted from: What are Estuaries?

Estuaries are based all around the world; they are even the main source of food for some cities. These cities build their homes, restaurants, and businesses around estuaries in certain areas of the world because of the environment it has. A big majority of the world gets their food supply and their water supply from estuaries, seeing that millions of cities around the world are based around rivers and eventually rivers lead into estuaries. Seventy-five percent of fish that people eat are caught in estuaries. These are just some of the reasons why they build their homes around estuaries. [17]


This scientific fact about the barrier (i.e. Estuary) between the fresh water of rivers and ocean salty water is mentioned in Quran in the following verse:

وهو الذي مرج البحرين هذا عذب فرات وهذا ملح اجاج وجعل بينهما برزخا وحجرا محجورا

And He it is Who hath given independence to the two seas (though they meet); one palatable, sweet, and the other saltish, bitter; and hath set a bar and a forbidding ban between them. [25:35]

Knowing that there is no single River that reaches sea or ocean water or even runs in whole Arabia !.

But ALLAH, the creator, knows and he is the ALL-knower of everything.

13.    Rivers Geological Source


Subsurface streams
Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caves or caverns. Such rivers are frequently found in regions with limestone geologic formations. Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can even flow uphill. [18]


The following verse explains how water gushes from soft stones to from the rivers, and this explain the state of rivers formation from front of glacier.
ثم قست قلوبكم من بعد ذلك فهي كالحجارة او اشد قسوة وان من الحجارة لما يتفجر منه الانهار وان منها لما يشقق فيخرج منه الماء وان منها لما يهبط من خشية الله وما الله بغافل عما تعملون

Then, even after that, your hearts were hardened and became as rocks, or worse than rocks, for hardness. For indeed there are rocks from out which rivers gush, and indeed there are rocks which split asunder so that water floweth from them. And indeed there are rocks which fall down for the fear of Allah. Allah is not unaware of what ye do. [2:74]

The word used in the verse for gush is “Yatafgar” means literally explodes which represents the water pressure that form rivers as explained above and in the next photo too. [19]

14.    Rivers for our Benefit


Quoted from Wikipedia – River

Rivers Uses:

Rivers have been used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, and as a means of disposing of waste.
Rivers have been used for navigation for thousands of years. The earliest evidence of navigation is found in the Indus Valley Civilization, which existed in northwestern Pakistan around 3300 BC.
In some heavily forested regions such as Scandinavia and Canada, lumberjacks use the river to float felled trees downstream to lumber camps for further processing, saving much effort and cost by transporting the huge heavy logs by natural means.
Rivers have been a source of food since pre-history. They can provide a rich source of fish and other edible aquatic life, and are a major source of fresh water, which can be used for drinking and irrigation. 
It is therefore no surprise to find most of the major cities of the world situated on the banks of rivers. Rivers help to determine the urban form of cities and neighbourhoods and their corridors often present opportunities for urban renewal through the development of foreshoreways such as riverwalks. Rivers also provide an easy means of disposing of waste-water and, in much of the less developed world, other wastes.
Fast flowing rivers and waterfalls are widely used as sources of energy, via watermills and hydroelectric plants.
The coarse sediments, gravel and sand, generated and moved by rivers are extensively used in construction. 
In upland rivers, rapids with whitewater or even waterfalls occur. Rapids are often used for recreation, such as whitewater kayaking.
Rivers have been important in determining political boundaries and defending countries. For example, the Danube was a long-standing border of the Roman Empire, and today it forms most of the border between Bulgaria and Romania. The Mississippi in North America and the Rhine in Europe are major east-west boundaries in those continents. The Orange and Limpopo Rivers in southern Africa form the boundaries between provinces and countries along their routes. [20]


In Summary, Rivers are used for the following:
  • Main source for fresh water.
  • Plants and Animal Irrigation.
  • Food production (Fishing).
  • Bathing.
  • Navigating.
  • Transporting & Shipping (goods & trees).
  • Source of energy, operate watermills, hydroelectric plants.
  • Supply of coarse, sediments, sand for construction.
  • Main location for cities and villages, and towns, all over the world.
  • Natural boundaries between countries and states.
  • A place for Rapid sports as kayaking

ALLAH, by his mercy, created the rivers with such great benefits for humans’ life on Earth, and he mentioned such favor in the following verse, that he creates the rivers and being of such great service unto us, so that we use them and this covers more than eating or drinking from them only:

الله الذي خلق السماوات والارض وانزل من السماء ماء فاخرج به من الثمرات رزقا لكم وسخر لكم الفلك لتجري في البحر بامره وسخر لكم الانهار

Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth, and causeth water to descend from the sky, thereby producing fruits as food for you, and maketh the ships to be of service unto you, that they may run upon the sea at His command, and hath made of service unto you the rivers; [14:32]

Although many of these great benefits were discovered after modern civilization, and they showed that rivers are very essential for human life and extremely good source for green energy.

15.    Seas & Rivers Jewelry


1- Sea Jewelry

Quoted from Wikipedia - Pearl

A pearl is a hard object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk, usually a conch. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is made up of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, which has been deposited in concentric layers. The ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other shapes of pearls (baroque pearls) occur. [21]

Quoted from Wikipedia - Precious coral

Precious coral or red coral is the common name given to Corallium rubrum and several related species of marine coral. The distinguishing characteristic of precious corals is their durable and intensely colored red or pink skeleton, which is used for making jewelry. [22]

Quoted from Wikipedia - Baltic Amber

The Baltic region is home to the largest known deposit of amber, called Baltic amber or succinite, with about 80% of the world's known amber found there.[citation needed] It dates 44 million years ago (Eocene). It has been estimated that these forests created over 105 tons of amber. [23]

Quoted from Wikipedia – Sea Glass

Sea glass is glass found on beaches along oceans, bays, rivers or large lakes that has been tumbled and smoothed by the waves, water and sand, creating smooth, frosted shards of glass. Combing shorelines for sea glass is a hobby for many beach-goers either simply to collect, or to craft into jewelry or other decorative pieces. [24]

2- Rivers Jewelry

Quoted from Water Encyclopedia: Mineral Resources from Fresh Water

Included in some river sediments are minerals resistant to weathering and abrasion, and that have higher density than common rocks and minerals. Because of their higher density, these so-called "heavy minerals" become concentrated, whereas the lower density minerals are removed by the water current. Locally, these heavy minerals may become aggregated in placer deposits, and may attain concentrations of economic importance. Gold, tin, and platinum are examples of placer minerals.

Where rivers carry heavy minerals to the ocean, the minerals become concentrated on the beach by wave action. The high-density and resistant minerals are left behind as the waves winnow away the lower density and less resistant rocks and minerals. Gold, diamonds, garnet, chromium, tin, iron, and titanium are examples of heavy minerals that may be extracted from beach placer deposits. Nearshore underwater mining, and mining of uplifted marine terraces are important sources of these valuable mineral resources. [25]


All what is mentioned above the jewelry that can be extracted and found whether in Sea or River is mentioned in the following verse:

وما يستوي البحران هذا عذب فرات سائغ شرابه وهذا ملح اجاج ومن كل تاكلون لحما طريا وتستخرجون حلية تلبسونها وترى الفلك فيه مواخر لتبتغوا من فضله ولعلكم تشكرون

And the two seas (i.e. Sea & River) are not alike: this, fresh, sweet, good to drink, this (other) bitter, salt. And from them both ye eat fresh meat and derive the ornament that ye wear. And thou seest the ship cleaving them with its prow that ye may seek of His bounty, and that haply ye may give thanks. [35:12]

Some may say that Jewelry from seas is known to Arabs, but how about the jewelry from the Rivers although there is none in whole Arabia, not even a single river, and extracting Gold from rivers was not known world widely before the 18th century.

16.    Gold carried by Flood


Gold is found in ores made up of rock with very small or microscopic particles of gold. This gold ore is often found together with quartz or sulfide minerals such as Fool's Gold, which is a pyrite. These are called lode deposits. Native gold is also found in the form of free flakes, grains or larger nuggets that have been eroded from rocks and end up in alluvial deposits (called placer deposits). Such free gold is always richer at the surface of gold-bearing veins owing to the oxidation of accompanying minerals followed by weathering, and washing of the dust into streams and rivers, where it collects and can be welded by water action to form nuggets. [26]


The following verse explains how the “flood” water carries the “ore” that is used to make Jewels or tools for human use:

انزل من السماء ماء فسالت اودية بقدرها فاحتمل السيل زبدا رابيا ومما يوقدون عليه في النار ابتغاء حلية او متاع زبد مثله كذلك يضرب الله الحق والباطل فاما الزبد فيذهب جفاء واما ما ينفع الناس فيمكث في الارض كذلك يضرب الله الامثال

He sends down water (rain) from the sky, and the valleys flow according to their measure, but the flood bears away the foam that mounts up to the surface, and (also) from that (ore) which they heat in the fire in order to make ornaments or utensils, rises a foam like unto it, thus does Allâh (by parables) show forth truth and falsehood. Then, as for the foam it passes away as scum upon the banks, while that which is for the good of mankind remains in the earth. Thus Allâh sets forth parables (for the truth and falsehood, i.e. Belief and disbelief). (13:17)

Knowing that the verse didn’t use the word “River's water” but “flood” and this to highlight the water pressure that comes with flood, and which will remove the Ore of Gold and other metals and carry them in place where People can find them.

And by ALLAH mercy, those materials carried with water flood is kept on river bottom for humans benefit, but the trash and foam that is light and has no benefit, it will be carried away and thrown in the deserts or seas.

Thanks to ALLAH, Lord of the Worlds

[1] Wikipedia, Origin of Water on Earth,

[2] Ocean in Motion: Currents – Characteristics, Science & Technology Focus,

[3] Oceanography: Ocean Waves, What on Earth,

[5] Oceanography: waves theory and principles of waves, how they work and what causes them, by Dr J Floor Anthoni 2000,

[6] Wikipedia: Breaking waves,

[7] Oceanography: waves theory and principles of waves, how they work and what causes them, by Dr J Floor Anthoni 2000,

[8] Wikipedia: Tsunamis,

[9] Black Smokers, Cold Seeps, Whale Falls, By Andrew Alden, Guide,

[10] Wikipedia: Sulfur,

[11] Wikipedia: Hawaii Hotspot,

[12] Wikipedia: Buoyancy,

[14] Wikipedia: Maritime Shipping,

[15] The Science Magazine,

[16] Wikipedia: Estuary,

[19] Origin of Fold Mountains, The Geography Site,

[20] Wikipedia: Rivers,

[21] Wikipedia: Pearl,

[22] Wikipedia: Precious Coral,

[23] Wikipedia: Baltic Amber,

[24] Wikipedia: Sea Glass,

[25] Mineral Resources from Fresh Water, Water Encyclopedia Science and Issues,

[26] Wikipedia: Gold,

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