Tuesday, November 29, 2011

The Story of Creation (17 - A): Adam Creation and Human Evolution, in Holy Quran and Science..


Index:

1-    Creation before Adam
2-    When was he created and where?
3-    How was he created?
4-    What did he look like?
5-    Adam's Knowledge
6-    Creation of Eve
7-    Descending to Earth
8-    Physical Evolution
9-    Adam’s Age
10- Earth during Adam’s times
11- Evolution after Adam

Scientific Proof
1-    Creation before Humans
2-    Belong to one Father “Adam”
3-    Was Adam Created or Evolved?
--------------------

1-    Creation before Adam

[Quran]

There are indications in the Holy Quran, that we “Humans” are not the first creation to be on Earth, such as:

1- The following verse is talking about creation who were before us, ALLAH says:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

O people, worship your Lord who created you and those before you, so that you may become God-fearing (2:21)

The speech is talking to people “Mankind” to worship God who created us and those who were before us !!


2- In the next verse, ALLAH says to the Angels that he will create a new creation as “successor, Khaleifa” on Earth:

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قَالُواْ أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاء وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ  (30)

Remember) when your Lord said to the angels, “I am going to create a successor on the earth!” They said, “Will You create there one who will spread disorder on the earth and cause bloodshed, while we proclaim Your purity, along with your praise, and sanctify Your name?” He said, “Certainly, I know what you know not.” (2:30)

Mentioning the word “Khaliefa” which means a successor, then someone must before us and we are not the first to be on Earth.

3- The Angels answer, saying “Will You create there one who will spread disorder on the earth and cause bloodshed”, as if they knew or saw already what those who were before us did on Earth as corruption and killing each others on Earth. But ALLAH answered them that he knows what they don’t know.

4- In the following verse, ALLAH remind us about his power that he created the heavens and Earth:

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَأْتِ بِخَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ (19) وَمَا ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ بِعَزِيزٍ

Do you not see that Allâh has created the heavens and the earth with truth? If He will, He can remove you and bring (in your place) a new creation! (19) And for Allâh that is not hard or difficult. [14-19:20]

And it’s easy to him to change us and bring a new creation, and this as reminder to those who may know, that before us there was a creation and were removed before we came to Earth.

[Hadith]

In the following Hadith, Ibn Abbass explains that there were creation before Humans on Earth, and they were type of “Jinn” who corrupted a lot on Earth, and ALLAH sent the Satan with army of Angels to fight them and kill them all.

Satan “Ibliss” felt proud in himself after this, and then ALLAH decided to create Adam from clay and asked all Angels to prostrate to him, where Satan refused to do so…

عن ابن عباس قال كان إبليس من حي من أحياء الملائكة يقال لهم الجن خلقوا من نار السموم من بين الملائكة وكان اسمه الحارث وكان خازنا من خزان الجنة قال وخلقت الملائكة كلهم من نور غير هذا الحي قال وخلقت الجن الذين ذكروا في القرآن من مارج من نار فأول من سكن الأرض الجن فأفسدوا فيها وسفكوا الدماء وقتل بعضهم بعضا قال فبعث الله إليهم إبليس في جند من الملائكة وهم هذا الحي الذين يقال لهم الجن فقتلهم إبليس ومن معه حتى ألحقهم بجزائر البحور وأطراف الجبال فلما فعل إبليس ذلك اغتر في نفسه فقال قد صنعت شيئا لم يصنعه أحد قال فاطلع الله على ذلك من قلبه ولم يطلع عليه الملائكة الذين كانوا معه فقال الله تعالى للملائكة الذين معه { إني جاعل في الأرض خليفة } فقالت الملائكة مجيبين له { أتجعل فيها من يفسد فيها ويسفك الدماء } كما أفسدت الجن وسفكت الدماء وإنما بعثتنا عليهم لذلك فقال { إني أعلم مالا تعلمون }
الراوي: الضحاك المحدث: ابن كثير - المصدر: تفسير القرآن - الصفحة أو الرقم1/107: خلاصة حكم المحدث: غريب

All the above indicate that Human were not the first creation on Earth, and some may proceeded us on Earth, and they might lived millions of years before us, as we will see next.

2-    When was he created and where?

[Hadith]

In the following Hadiths, it’s mentioned that creation of Adam was in last hour of Friday day (7th day) of creation, and he stayed as clay for 40 years before God blew the spirit into him and raise him alive:

أخذ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بيدي فقال " خلق الله ، عز وجل ، التربة يوم السبت . وخلق فيها الجبال يوم الأحد . وخلق الشجر يوم الاثنين . وخلق المكروه يوم الثلاثاء . وخلق النور يوم الأربعاء . وبث فيها الدواب يوم الخميس . وخلق آدم ، عليه السلام ، بعد العصر من يوم الجمعة . في آخر الخلق . في آخر ساعة من ساعات الجمعة . فيما بين العصر إلى الليل " .
الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: مسلم - المصدر: صحيح مسلم - الصفحة أو الرقم: 2789 خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح 

عن أناس من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لما فرغ الله من خلق ما أحب استوى على العرش .... قال للملائكة { إني خالق بشرا من طين فإذا سويته ونفخت فيه من روحي فقعوا له ساجدين } فخلقه الله بيده لئلا يتكبر إبليس عنه ليقول له تتكبر عما عملت بيدي ولم أتكبر أنا عنه فخلقه بشرا فكان جسدا من طين أربعين سنة من مقدار يوم الجمعة فمرت به الملائكة ففزعوا منه لما رأوه وكان أشدهم فزعا منه إبليس فكان يمر به فيضربه فيصوت الجسد كما يصوت الفخار و تكون له صلصلة فذلك حين يقول { من صلصال كالفخار } ويقول لأمر ما خلقت .... الراوي: عبدالله بن مسعود المحدث: ابن كثير - المصدر: تفسير القرآن - الصفحة أو الرقم 1/109
Calculations:

We mentioned in part (3) from this series, that Universal day = 2 Billion years, and it was divided into equal Night and Day each of 1 billion years.

Each daylight and night is divided into 12 hours, giving that last hour in Friday (7th day) will be equal to:
1 Billion / 12 = 83.33 million years

And we mentioned before (part 3) that universal year equal to 2 million years, so the “7,000 years” period mentioned in Christian and Islamic resources about life age will give us the actual age of universe which will be 7,000 x 2 m = 14 billion years.

In the above Hadith, it’s mentioned that Adam stayed as clay for 40 years, using the above assumption, then he stayed for 40 x 2 million = 80 million years of last hour of the 7th day.

If we take Science findings that humans are on Earth for almost 70-80,000 years only, then the period that our first parents Adam and Eve stayed in Paradise will be:
83.333 million – 80 million (as clay) – 0.080 million on Earth = 3.250 million years in Paradise


This also shows that Creation of Adam was after the extinction of other species on Earth, and therefore they must exist before the last hour (83 million years).


3-    How was he created?

[Quran]

In the following verses, ALLAH mentions that he created Adam from Sand (dust), and in another verse from Clay:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ إِذَا أَنتُم بَشَرٌ تَنتَشِرُونَ 20 وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا لِّتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُم مَّوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ 21

And among His Signs is this, that He created you (Adam) from dust, and then [Hawwa' (Eve) from Adam's rib, and then his offspring from the semen, and], - behold you are human beings scattered! (20) And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect. (30:20-21)

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلائِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لآدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ قَالَ أَأَسْجُدُ لِمَنْ خَلَقْتَ طِينًا

 And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves unto Adam." They prostrated except Iblîs (Satan). He said: "Shall I prostrate to one whom You created from clay?" (61)

[Hadith]

In the following Hadith, Prophet (PBUH) mentions that we “Human” are sons of Adams and Adam was created from dust:
كلكم بنو آدم و آدم خلق من تراب
الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: غاية المرام - خلاصة: حسن

In the second Hadith, Prophet (PBUH) mentions that the sand was taken from all Earth, not from a certain place:

"إن الله خلق آدم من قبضة قبضها من جميع الأرض ، فجاء بنو آدم على قدر الأرض: جاء منهم الأحمر، والأبيض، والأسود، وبين ذلك، والسهل، والحزن، والخبيث، والطيب"
المصدر: سنن أبي داود  - الصفحة أو الرقم: 4693 خلاصة حكم المحدث: سكت عنه [صالح ]


Prophet explains that because of that we were of different colors: some came brown, others white or black, and since some were taken from plane, valleys, good places or bad places, sons of Adams were distributed like that too: good, bad, easy and difficult persons.



Blowing of Spirit

[Hadith]

Returning to Hadith Ibn Abbass:

... فكان إبليس يأتيه فيضربه برجله فيصلصل أي فيصوت قال فهو قول الله تعالى { من صلصال كالفخار } يقول كالشيء المنفرج الذي ليس بمصمت قال ثم يدخل في فيه ويخرج من دبره ويدخل من دبره ويخرج من فيه ثم يقول ليست شيئا للصلصلة ولشيء ما خلقت ولئن سلطت عليك لأهلكنك ولئن سلطت علي لأعصينك قال فلما نفخ الله فيه من روحه أتت النفخة من قبل رأسه فجعل لا يجري شيء منها في جسده إلا صار لحما ودما فلما انتهت النفخة إلى سرته نظر إلى جسده فأعجبه ما رأى من جسده فذهب لينهض فلم يقدر فهو قول الله تعالى { وخلق الإنسان عجولا } قال ضجر لا صبر له على سراء ولا ضراء قال فلما تمت النفخة في جسده عطس فقال الحمد لله رب العالمين بإلهام الله فقال له يرحمك الله يا آدم....

Adam was left as clay for 40 years (some mentioned 40 nights, but I took that of years), where during his shape and his internal organisms were formed, the proof is mentioned in the above Hadith, when Ibliss (Satan) passed by Adam’s body, he used to say to the Angels “don’t be afraid from him, I can enter from his mouth and exist from his back”.

And the body of Adam made a sound every time Ibliss hit it as shaking clay of pottery. ALLAH says:
خلق الانسان من صلصال كالفخار

He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery. (55:14)

Then finally, when ALLAH blew the spirit inside Adam, it entered his head first and then whenever it passes through his body, it returned to flesh and blood, his mind started functioning first, he saw the heaven first and its fruits, he wanted to standup but he couldn’t because the spirit didn’t reach his legs yet, because of that ALLAH says: “for man was ever hasty”.

Then, the first thing he did that he sneezed (maybe because of the dust around him), and said: “Thanks to ALLAH, lord or the Worlds”, ALLAH answered him: “ALLAH’s mercy on you, Adam”


It’s clear that Adam’s organisms were created by ALLAH and his shape in Clay, till God blew his soul inside him, where then he became alive.


4-    What did he look like?

Adam Dimensions

[Hadith]

In the following Hadiths, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) describes Adam dimensions exactly:

"يدخل أهل الجنة الجنة جردا مردا بيضا جعدا مكحلين أبناء ثلاث وثلاثين وهم على خلق آدم صلى الله عليه وسلم ستون ذراعا في سبعة أذرع". الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: الهيثمي - المصدر: مجمع الزوائد - الصفحة أو الرقم: 10/402 خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده حسن‏‏

Prophet (PBUH) mentions that People of Heaven will be created like Adam in age of 33 years old, and in Adam’s dimensions: height of 60 Arms x 7 Arms wide.

Knowing that Islamic Arm dimension = 49 ~ 50 cm, therefore the dimensions of Adam were:
60 x 50 cm = 30 meters height and 7 x 50 = 3.5 meters wide approximately.

Assuming that 2 m man has a 100 Kg weight, then 30 m will be approximate of 1.5 Ton.

In next Hadith, Prophet mentions that Adam was a tall man, and he was hairy head man like a very tall palm.

أن الله خلق آدم رجلا طوالا كثير شعر الرأس كأنه نخلة سحوق الراوي: أبي بن كعب المحدث: ابن حجر العسقلاني - الصفحة أو الرقم: 423/6 - خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده حسن




Adam’s Name

It’s important to understand the meaning of “Adam”, which gives all the following meaning:

وأَدَمَةُ الأَرض: وجهُها؛ قال الجوهري: وربما سمي وجْهُ الأَرض أَديماً. والأُدْمَةُ السُّمرةُ. والآدَمُ من الناس: الأَسْمَرُ. قال: وهي في الناس السُّمرة الشديدة، وقيل: هو من أُدْمة الأَرض، وهو لَوْنُها، قال: وبه سمي آدم أَبو البَشَر، على نبينا وعليه الصلاة والسلام.


The name came from the surface of Earth, so Adam meaning is similar to “Earthly” or the one who is created from Earth, in addition to those who looks so brown, they are called Adam.

Adam was extremely handsome and Eve too, because they were made by God’s hands:

In Conclusion:

Adam had the following attributes:
  • Name means: “Earthly” person
  • Long man of 30 meters tall, 7 meters wide
  • Weight of 1.5 ton approx.
  • Brown skin.
  • Long Hairy (head with no beard)
  • Very handsome man

 
5-    Adam's Knowledge

[Quran]

In the following verses, ALLAH mentions that he taught Adam the names of all things:

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاء هَؤُلاء إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ (31) قَالُواْ سُبْحَانَكَ لاَ عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلاَّ مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ (32) قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُمْ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ (33)

And He taught ’Adam the names, all of them; then presented them before the angels, and said, “Tell me their names, if you are right.” (31) They said, “To You belongs all purity! We have no knowledge except what You have given us. Surely, You alone are the All-knowing, All-wise.” (32) He said, “O ’Adam, tell them the names of all these.” When he told them their names, Allah said, “Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of the skies and of the earth, and that I know what you disclose and what you conceal (33)

Mentioning that he taught him the names of all things, then its use too and what they are created for. And in these verses (same mentioned in the bible too) an indication that Adam was created to live on Earth NOT on paradise forever, because:

-       ALLAH informed his Angels that he will create a successor on Earth, means eventually he will live on Earth, not in paradise.

-       Teaching Adam the names of everything, which mostly will need and use in his life on Earth, i.e. that one day he will descend to Earth for sure.

In Ibn Abbass Hadith, he explains the names as “names of things known by humans, names of animals, earth topography: land, mountain, sea, etc… :

... ثم علم آدم الأسماء كلها وهي هذه الأسماء التي يتعارف بها الناس إنسان ودابة وأرض وسهل وبحر وجبل وحمار وأشباه ذلك من الأمم وغيرها ثم عرض هذه الأسماء على أولئك الملائكة ...

And, in the Bible, Gensis [2:19-20]:

١٩ وَجَبَلَ الرَّبُّ الإِلهُ مِنَ الأَرْضِ كُلَّ حَيَوَانَاتِ الْبَرِّيَّةِ وَكُلَّ طُيُورِ السَّمَاءِ، فَأَحْضَرَهَا إِلَى آدَمَ لِيَرَى مَاذَا يَدْعُوهَا، وَكُلُّ مَا دَعَا بِهِ آدَمُ ذَاتَ نَفْسٍ حَيَّةٍ فَهُوَ اسْمُهَا. ٢٠ فَدَعَا آدَمُ بِأَسْمَاءٍ جَمِيعَ الْبَهَائِمِ وَطُيُورَ السَّمَاءِ وَجَمِيعَ حَيَوَانَاتِ الْبَرِّيَّةِ. وَأَمَّا لِنَفْسِهِ فَلَمْ يَجِدْ مُعِينًا نَظِيرَهُ.

19 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.  20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.

6-    Creation of Eve

In the following verse from Quran, Hadith and verses from Genesis agree that Eve was created from Adam himself, from one of his ribs (bones),

خلقكم من نفس واحدة ثم جعل منها زوجها
He created you from one being, then from that (being) He made its mate; [39:6]

إن المرأة خلقت من ضلع فإن أقمتها كسرتها, فدارها تعش بها
الراوي: سمرة بن جندب - خلاصة حكم المحدث: [إسناده صحيح أو حسن أو ما قاربهما[

٢١ فَأَوْقَعَ الرَّبُّ الإِلهُ سُبَاتًا عَلَى آدَمَ فَنَامَ، فَأَخَذَ وَاحِدَةً مِنْ أَضْلاَعِهِ وَمَلأَ مَكَانَهَا لَحْمًا. ٢٢ وَبَنَى الرَّبُّ الإِلهُ الضِّلْعَ الَّتِي أَخَذَهَا مِنْ آدَمَ امْرَأَةً وَأَحْضَرَهَا إِلَى آدَمَ.

21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; 22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.

And the meaning of “Eve” name “Hawwa”, is the mother of every living being (person).

}حوا} [حَوَّاء] سميت بذلك لأنها أم كل حي. المصدر: المعجم المفسر لكلمات أحاديث الكتب التسعة.

Knowing that usually Human will not sleep in heaven, but ALLAH caused Adam to sleep, so Hawwa be created from him, this means that it took time to be created from the bone took from Adam’s ribs (we will see later, why).


7-    Descending to Earth

There is no strong evidence about where Adam had descended on Earth, but some of Hadiths, although not all of them are totally strong, but most of them say that he descended in India, and the following Hadith, say that Adam had performed pilgrimage for 1000 times means 1000 years coming from India on foot.

إن آدم أتى البيت ألف أتية لم يركب قط فيهن من الهند على رجليه . الراوي: - المحدث: الهيتمي المكي - المصدر: الزواجر - الصفحة أو الرقم: 1/205 خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح أو حسن

In the following Hadith, it’s mentioned that Adam and Eve “Hawwa” were the first who built the house of God, Al-Kaaba in Makkah, and he was the first one to do pilgrimage to this house, but later on the house was destroyed between centuries till Noah who built it again, but also was destroyed till Ibrahim and his son Ishmael built it, then their sons with surrounding Arabs who lived around the house maintained it till our days:

بعث الله جبريل إلى آدم وحواء فقال لهما ابنيا لي بيتا فخط لهما جبريل فجعل آدم يحفر وحواء تنقل حتى أجابه الماء نودي من تحته حسبك يا آدم فلما بنيا أوحى الله تعالى إليه أن يطوف به وقيل له أنت أول الناس وهذا أول بيت ثم تناسخت القرون حتى حجه نوح ثم تناسخت القرون حتى رفع إبراهيم القواعد منه
الراوي: عبدالله بن عمرو بن العاص المحدث: ابن كثير - المصدر: البداية والنهاية - الصفحة أو الرقم: 2/277
خلاصة حكم المحدث: تفرد به ابن لهيعة هكذا مرفوعا وهو ضعيف ووقفه على عبد الله بن عمرو أقوى وأثبت


8-    Physical Evolution

In the following Hadith, it’s mentioned that Hawwa was the first woman to have menstruation period, and this was after her descending from Heaven with Adam

عن ابن عباس أن ابتداء الحيض كان على حواء بعد أن أهبطت من الجنة.
 الراوي: - المحدث: ابن حجر العسقلاني  المصدر: فتح الباري لابن حجر - الصفحة أو الرقم: 1/477 خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده صحيح

In the following Hadith, it’s mentioned that Hawwa first pregnancy failed for few times but later on it was successful:

لما حملت حواء طاف بها إبليس وكان لا يعيش لها ولد ، فقال : سميه عبد الحارث ، فسمته عبد الحارث ، فعاش ، وكان ذلك من وحي الشيطان وأمره
الراوي: سمرة بن جندب المحدث: الترمذي  -المصدر سنن الترمذي - الصفحة أو الرقم: 3077
خلاصة حكم المحدث: حسن غريب

This indicates the Hawwa body needed to be changed so it can carry children, and its pregnancy won’t be successful from first time, Satan might knew that, and when they were to have first successful delivery he told them to call it “Abed Alhareth” after his name so he may live, although it was going to live anyway by the command of ALLAH, by they may didn’t know that.


9-    Adam’s Age

In the following Hadiths, Adam age was 1000 years, and there was 10 generations between him and Noah, the word “Koroun” means generations more than centuries and since the average generation lived between Adam and Noah was 1000 years, then 10 generations = 10,000 years.

لما حضر آدم عليه السلام قال لبنيه انطلقوا فاجنوا لي من ثمار الجنة فخرج بنوه فاستقبلتهم الملائكة فقالوا أين تريدون يا بني آدم قالوا بعثنا أبونا لنجني له من ثمار الجنة فقالوا ارجعوا فقد كفيتم فرجعوا معهم حتى دخلوا على آدم فلما رأتهم حواء عليها السلام ذعرت منهم وجعلت تدنو إلى آدم وتلصق به فقال لها آدم إليك عني فمن قبلك أتيت خل بيني وبين ملائكة ربي فقبضوا روحه ثم غسلوه وحنطوه وكفنوه ثم صلوا عليه ثم حفروا له ثم دفنوه ثم قالوا يا بني آدم هذا سنتكم في موتاكم فكذاكم فافعلوا
الراوي: أبي بن كعب المحدث: ابن الملقن - المصدر: تحفة المحتاج - الصفحة أو الرقم: 1/588
خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح أو حسن [كما اشترط على نفسه في المقدمة]

لما نزلت آية الدين قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : إن أول من جحد آدم ، عليه السلام ، أن الله لما خلق آدم ، مسح ظهره فأخرج منه ما هو ذارئ إلى يوم القيامة ، فجعل يعرض ذريته عليه ، فرأى فيهم رجلا يزهر ، فقال : أي رب ، من هذا ؟ قال : هو ابنك داود . قال : أي رب ، كم عمره ؟ قال : ستون عاما ، قال : رب زد في عمره . قال : لا ، إلا أن أزيد في عمرك . وكان عمر آدم ألف سنة ، فزاده أربعين ، فكتب عليه بذلك كتابا وأشهد عليه الملائكة ، فلما احتضر آدم وأتته الملائكة قال : إنه قد بقي من عمري أربعون عاما ، فقيل له : إنك قد وهبتها لابنك داود . قال : ما فعلت ، فأبرز الله عليه الكتاب ، وأشهد عليه الملائكة
الراوي: عبدالله بن عباس المحدث: أحمد شاكر - المصدر: عمدة التفسير - الصفحة أو الرقم: 1/338
خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح 

كان آدم نبيا مكلما ، كان بينه و بين نوح عشرة قرون ، و كانت الرسل ثلاثمائة و خمسة عشر
الراوي: أبو أمامة الباهلي المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: السلسلة الصحيحة - الصفحة أو الرقم: 2668
خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده صحيح


10-    Earth during Adam’s times

The following Hadith talks about Jesus second return, where then Earth will give its plantation similar to what it was during Adam’s times, the bunch of grape or pomegranate will be enough for group of people, because of its huge size, and this similar to what the plantation was during Adams times.

فيكون عيسى ابن مريم في أمتي حكما عدلا ، وإماما مقسطا يدق الصليب ، ويذبح الخنزير ، ويضع الجزية ، ويترك الصدقة ، فلا يسعى على شاة ولا بعير ، وترفع الشحناء والتباغض ، وتنزع حمة كل ذات حمة ، حتى يدخل الوليد يده في في الحية ، فلا تضره ، وتضر الوليدة الأسد فلا يضرها ، ويكون الذئب في الغنم كأنه كلبها ، وتملأ الأرض من السلم كما يملأ الإناء من الماء ، وتكون الكلمة واحدة ، فلا يعبد إلا الله ، وتضع الحرب أوزارها ، وتسلب قريش ملكها ، وتكون الأرض كفاثور الفضة ، تنبت نباتها بعهد آدم حتى يجتمع النفر على القطف من العنب فيشبعهم ، ويجتمع النفر على الرمانة فتشبعهم ، ويكون الثور بكذا وكذا وكذا من المال ، ويكون الفرس بالدريهمات ، … وإن قبل خروج الدجال ثلاث سنوات شداد ، يصيب الناس فيها جوع شديد ، يأمر الله السماء السنة الأولى أن تحبس ثلث مطرها ، ويأمر الأرض أن تحبس ثلث نباتها ، ثم يأمر السماء في السنة الثانية فتحبس ثلثي مطرها ، ويأمر الأرض فتحبس ثلثي نباتها ، ثم يأمر السماء في السنة الثالثة فتحبس مطرها كله ، فلا تقطر قطرة ، ويأمر الأرض فتحبس نباتها كله فلا تنبت خضراء ، فلا يبقى ذات ظلف إلا هلكت إلا ما شاء الله ، قيل : فما يعيش الناس في ذلك الزمان ؟ قال : التهليل ، والتكبير ، والتحميد ، ويجزئ ذلك عليهم مجزأة الطعام
الراوي: أبو أمامة الباهلي المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الجامع - الصفحة أو الرقم: 7875 خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

Also, but there is a sign about how the Earth will be then (during Jesus second return), it will be like a bowl of silver, which means that Earth will goes into a second Ice age similar to what it was during Adams times, as shown in next figure.


11-    Evolution after Adam

Human Age

In the following verses, they show that human could live till 1000 years similar to Adam and Noah before:

وَلَتَجِدَنَّهُمْ أَحْرَصَ النَّاسِ عَلَى حَيَاةٍ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُواْ يَوَدُّ أَحَدُهُمْ لَوْ يُعَمَّرُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ وَمَا هُوَ بِمُزَحْزِحِهِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ أَن يُعَمَّرَ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ

And verily, you will find them (the Jews) the greediest of mankind for life and (even greedier) than those who ascribe partners to Allâh (and do not believe in Resurrection - Majus, pagans, and idolaters). Everyone of them wishes that he could be given a life of a thousand years. But the grant of such life will not save him even a little from (due) punishment. And Allâh is All-Seer of what they do. [2:96]

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَى قَوْمِهِ فَلَبِثَ فِيهِمْ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ إِلاَّ خَمْسِينَ عَامًا فَأَخَذَهُمُ الطُّوفَانُ وَهُمْ ظَالِمُونَ

And indeed We sent Nûh (Noah) to his people, and he stayed among them a thousand years less fifty years [inviting them to believe in the Oneness of Allâh (Monotheism), and discard the false gods and other deities], and the Deluge overtook them while they were Zâlimûn (wrong-doers, polytheists, disbelievers). [29:14]


In the following Hadith, prophet Muhammad (PBUH) saw the age of his followers very short comparing with those who came before, so he was given the “Al-Kader night” in Ramadan from God as compensation, and praying during this night as worshiping for 1000 months long.


إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أري أعمار الناس قبله ، أو ما شاء الله من ذلك ، فكأنه تقاصر أعمار أمته أن لا يبلغوا من العمل مثل الذي بلغ غيرهم في طول العمر ، فأعطاه الله ليلة القدر ، خير من ألف شهر

الراوي: مالك المحدث: ابن عبدالبر - المصدر: الاستذكار - الصفحة أو الرقم: 3/299 . خلاصة حكم المحدث: لا أعلم يروى مسنداً ومرسلاً من وجه من الوجوه إلا ما في الموطأ

All these indications that human before our generations lived much more than our ages, and they reach even till thousand of years.


Physical Size

In the following Hadith, Prophet explains that Adam was created as 60 Arms (30m) long as mentioned before, but he added that all humans who come later, their size become shorter till we reach our current size now:

خلق الله آدم على صورته ، طوله ستون ذراعا ، فلما خلقه قال: اذهب فسلم على أولئك ، نفر من الملائكة ، جلوس ، فاستمع ما يحيونك ، فإنها تحيتك وتحية ذريتك ، فقال: السلام عليكم ، فقالوا: السلام عليك ورحمة الله ، فزادوه: ورحمة الله ، فكل من يدخل الجنة على صورة آدم ، فلم يزل الخلق ينقص بعد حتى الآن. الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: البخاري - الصفحة أو الرقم: 6227 - خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح


Strength and Children

It’s clear in the following verses that those ancient generations of humans were much stronger than current generations and had much more children, and also richer as Earth was during their days was rich, full of green lands and fruits trees. 


كَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ كَانُواْ أَشَدَّ مِنكُمْ قُوَّةً وَأَكْثَرَ أَمْوَالاً وَأَوْلادًا فَاسْتَمْتَعُواْ بِخَلاقِهِمْ فَاسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِخَلاقِكُمْ كَمَا اسْتَمْتَعَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ بِخَلاقِهِمْ وَخُضْتُمْ كَالَّذِي خَاضُواْ أُوْلَئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالآخِرَةِ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

You are) like those who were before you. They were stronger than you in power, and richer in wealth and children. So, they enjoyed their share (from the pleasures of this world), then you enjoyed your share as those before you enjoyed their share, and you indulged (in evils) as they indulged. They are the ones whose deeds have gone to waste in this world and in the Hereafter, and they are the losers. (9:69)

It’s also said that Adam didn’t die till his offspring reached thousands of humans among his sons, grandsons, grand grandsons, etc [Bedaya Welnehaya, P1]…


Ageing and graying

In the following Hadith, it shows that human ageing started very late and it was not before prophet “Ibrahim” days, actually he was the first one to see the gray hair over his head. And this an indication that people died whether because of fight or their age ended, as planned by ALLAH, but very lastly due to ageing or diseases.

عن أبي هريرة قال: اختتن إبراهيم خليل الله عليه السلام وهو ابن عشرين ومائة سنة بالقدوم ، ثم عاش بعد ذلك ثمانين سنة ، فقال سعيد : فكان إبراهيم عليه السلام أول من اختتن ، وأول من رأى الشيب ، فقال : يا رب ! ما هذا ؟ فقال : وقارا يا إبراهيم ، قال : رب زدني وقار ، وأول من أضاف الضيف وأول من جز شاربه وأول من قص أظافره وأول من استحد
الراوي: سعيد بن المسيب المحدث: البيهقي - المصدر: شعب الإيمان - الصفحة أو الرقم: 6/2893. خلاصة حكم المحدث: الصحيح موقوفاً

After mentioning all the above facts from Islamic resources, is it possible to proof scientifically any of these facts or most of them?

Let’s see…

Scientific Proof


1- Creation before Humans

[Science]

Quoted from Wikipedia - Neanderthal

The Neanderthal is an extinct member of the Homo genus known from Pleistocene specimens found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia. Neanderthals are classified either as a subspecies of modern humans (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) or as a separate human species (Homo neanderthalensis).
The first proto-Neanderthal traits appeared in Europe as early as 600,000–350,000 years ago. Proto-Neanderthal traits are occasionally grouped with another phenetic 'species', Homo heidelbergensis, or a migrant form, Homo rhodesiensis.
Extinction Hypothesis

1- Neanderthals were a separate species from modern humans, and became extinct (due to climate change or interaction with humans) and were replaced by H. sapiens moving into its habitat beginning around 80,000 years ago. Competition from H. sapiens probably contributed to Neanderthal extinction. Jared Diamond has suggested a scenario of violent conflict and displacement.

2- Neanderthals were a contemporary subspecies that bred with Homo sapiens and disappeared through absorption (interbreeding theory).

3- A Campanian ignimbrite volcanic super-eruption around 40,000 years ago, followed by a second one a few thousand years later, has been hypothesised as having contributed to the demise of the Neanderthal, based on evidence from Mezmaiskaya cave in the Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of a specimen from Mezmaiskaya Cave is radiocarbon dated to be about 29,000 years BP and therefore from one of the latest living Neanderthal individuals. The sequence shows 3.48% divergence from the Feldhofer Neanderthal4. Phylogenetic analysis places the two Neanderthals from the Caucasus and western Germany together in a clade that is distinct from modern humans, suggesting that their mtDNA types have not contributed to the modern human mtDNA pool. [1]

[Comparison]

If we read what is mentioned in the Hadith of Ibn Abbass again:

نار فأول من سكن الأرض الجن فأفسدوا فيها وسفكوا الدماء وقتل بعضهم بعضا قال فبعث الله إليهم إبليس في جند من الملائكة وهم هذا الحي الذين يقال لهم الجن فقتلهم إبليس ومن معه حتى ألحقهم بجزائر البحور وأطراف الجبال

We conclude the following:

1- There were people called [Jinn] lived before us on Earth, and they corrupted a lot by killing each others, (“Jinn” doesn’t means ghosts only, but because they are living creatures different from humans) .

2- They were extinct due to fight with an Army of Angels led by Satan.

3- They were almost all dead except of few of them who were left in mountains sides or isolated islands.

The above 3 statements match perfectly with Neanderthal story, that they lived 100 of thousands of years before humans, they were extinct rapidly only few of them left, and their remains were discovered in caves (mountains sides).




2- Belong to one Father “ADAM”

[Science]
Quoted from Wikipedia: Y-Chromosomal Adam

In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam ( Y-MRCA) is the theoretical most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all living people are descended patrilineally (tracing back along the paternal lines of their family tree only). All living humans are descended matrilineally from Mitochondrial Eve who is thought to have lived about 200,000 years ago. Y-chromosomal Adam and Mitochondrial Eve need not have lived at the same time. Many studies report that Y-chromosomal Adam lived sometime later than Mitochondrial Eve, around 142,000 years ago and possibly as recently as 60,000 years ago.

Time Frame

The 2011 study by Cruciani et al. found that Y-chromosome Adam lived about 142,000 years ago, significantly earlier than previous estimates, such as the 59,000 years ago estimate proposed by Thomson et al. 2000. The older TMRCA was due to the discovery of additional mutations and the rearrangement of the backbone of the y-chromosome phylogeny following the resequencing of Haplogroup A lineages. According to the study, determining the precise date when Y-chromosome Adam lived depends on the accuracy of the mutation rate used. But the repositioning of the MRCA from the root of haplogroups A and BT to the root of Haplogroups A1b and A1a still entails that Y-chromosome Adam is older than previously thought. According to Cruciani et al., the much older date is easier to reconcile with models of human origins. [2]


[Comparison]

It’s not difficult to say that this matches with all Islamic and Christian sources that we all belong to one Man, called “Adam”, prophet Muhammad (PBUH) clearly said that: We all belong to Adam and Adam is from dust”.

3- Was Adam Created or Evolved?

[Science]

Quoted from: Science Mysteries - Human Genome

“Humbling” was the prevalent adjective used by the scientific teams and the media to describe the principal finding – that the human genome contains not the anticipated 100,000 - 140,000 genes (the stretches of DNA that direct the production of amino-acids and proteins) but only some 30,000+ -- little more than double the 13,601 genes of a fruit fly and barely fifty percent more than the roundworm’s 19,098. What a comedown from the pinnacle of the genomic Tree of Life!

The “Head-scratching” Discovery

It was here, in tracing the vertical evolutionary record contained in the human and the other analyzed genomes, that the scientists ran into an enigma. The “head-scratching discovery by the public consortium,” as Science termed it, was that the human genome contains 223 genes that do not have the required predecessors on the genomic evolutionary tree.

How did Man acquire such a bunch of enigmatic genes?

In the evolutionary progression from bacteria to invertebrates (such as the lineages of yeast, worms, flies or mustard weed – which have been deciphered) to vertebrates (mice, chimpanzees) and finally modern humans, these 223 genes are completely missing in the invertebrate phase. Therefore, the scientists can explain their presence in the human genome by a “rather recent” (in evolutionary time scales) “probable horizontal transfer from bacteria.”
In other words: At a relatively recent time as Evolution goes, modern humans acquired an extra 223 genes not through gradual evolution, not vertically on the Tree of Life, but horizontally, as a sideways insertion of genetic material from bacteria

An Immense Difference

Now, at first glance it would seem that 223 genes is no big deal. In fact, while every single gene makes a great difference to every individual, 223 genes make an immense difference to a species such as ours.

The human genome is made up of about three billion neucleotides (the “letters” A-C-G-T which stand for the initials of the four nucleic acids that spell out all life on Earth); of them, just a little more than one percent are grouped into functioning genes (each gene consists of thousands of "letters"). The difference between one individual person and another amounts to about one “letter” in a thousand in the DNA “alphabet.” The difference between Man and Chimpanzee is less than one percent as genes go; and one percent of 30,000 genes is 300.

So, 223 genes is more than two thirds of the difference between me, you and a chimpanzee!
“It is a jump that does not follow current evolutionary theories,” said Steven Scherer, director of mapping of the Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine.

“We did not identify a strongly preferred bacterial source for the putative horizontally transferred genes,” states the report in Nature. The Public Consortium team, conducting a detailed search, found that some 113 genes (out of the 223) “are widespread among bacteria” – though they are entirely absent even in invertebrates. An analysis of the proteins which the enigmatic genes express showed that out of 35 identified, only ten had counterparts in vertebrates (ranging from cows to rodents to fish); 25 of the 35 were unique to humans.

“It is not clear whether the transfer was from bacteria to human or from human to bacteria,” Science quoted Robert Waterson, co-director of Washington University’s Genome Sequencing Center, as saying.

But if Man gave those genes to bacteria, where did Man acquire those genes to begin with?

A Matter of Extreme Significance

Unless further scientific research can establish, beyond any doubt, that the only possible source of the extra genes are indeed bacteria, and unless it is then also determined that the infection (“horizontal transfer”) went from bacteria to Man and not from Man to bacteria, the only other available solution will be that offered by the Sumerian texts millennia ago.

Until then, the enigmatic 223 alien genes will remain as an alternative – and as a corroboration by modern science of the Anunnaki and their genetic feats on Earth. Zecharia Stichin. [3]


Quoted from: Genome News Network - “Researchers Challenge Recent Claim That Humans Acquired 223 Bacterial Genes During Evolution”

A new study demonstrates that humans have relatively few, if any, genes passed directly from bacteria during evolution. Fewer than 50 human genes may have been transferred from bacteria to vertebrates at some point in time, according to an analysis of human, bacterial and nonvertebrate genomes published this week in Science Express.

None of these genes is likely to have been acquired outright from bacteria, say investigators at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville, Maryland, who conducted the study. Rather, they suggest that some proteins may appear to exist only in humans and bacteria due to the loss of genes among nonvertebrate species and the failure to detect human and bacterial genes that are present but mutated in nonvertebrate species. [4]


Quoted from Bacteria with Human DNA: You Want a Piece of Me?

The organisms most likely to trade genes with our cells are bacteria, a few trillion of which are present on and in our bodies. Gene transfer with N. gonorrhoeae became suspect after the researchers sequenced the DNA of organisms from patient samples and found that the bacterial DNA sequence contained a segment identical to an element of DNA found in the human genome. About 11 percent of the sequenced samples of gonorrhea contained the human DNA sequence. When bacteria closely related to N. gonorrhoeae were analyzed, the researchers did not find any trace of the human DNA, indicating that the gene transfer happened fairly recently in organism’s evolution. [5]


Quoted from: Eat Mud to Get Happy - Happiness could be found in the mud ...

A mixed research team from the University of Bristol and University College London has discovered that bacteria found in the soil turned on a group of neurons that synthesize the brain chemical serotonin, named also "the happiness hormone".

The researchers had observed that human cancer patients, after being treated with the bacteria Mycobacterium vaccae, unexpectedly signaled increases in their quality of life.
This bacterium is related to the bacterium that induces tuberculosis and lives naturally in soil, and was first isolated from cow dung in Austria. Lowry's team believes that the effects induced by M. vaccae could be triggered by activation of neurons in the brain that produce serotonin and when the researchers took a closer look at the brains of mice, they found that indeed their theory was true. [6]

Quoted from Wikipedia: Bacteria

Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria are present in most habitats on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, water, and deep in the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals, providing outstanding examples of mutualism in the digestive tracts of humans, termites and cockroaches. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria on Earth,[3] forming a biomass that exceeds that of all plants and animals. [7]

[Comparison]

Let’s summarize and quote the most important scientific findings above:

[1- Human genome contains not the anticipated 100,000 - 140,000 genes, comedown from the top of the genomic Tree of Life!

2- Human genome contains 223 genes that do not have the required predecessors on the genomic evolutionary tree.

3- The scientists can explain their presence in the human genome by a “rather recent” (in evolutionary time scales) “probable horizontal transfer from bacteria.”

4- Knowing that the difference between Man and Chimpanzee is less than one percent as genes go; and one percent of 30,000 genes is 300.

5- A detailed search, found that some 113 genes (out of the 223) “are widespread among bacteria” – though they are entirely absent even in invertebrates.

6- Some proteins may appear to exist only in humans and bacteria due to the loss of genes among nonvertebrate species

7- Sequenced the DNA of organisms from patient samples and found that the bacterial DNA sequence contained a segment identical to an element of DNA found in the human genome.

8- Research shows that Human cancer patients, after being treated with the bacteria Mycobacterium vaccae, unexpectedly signaled increases in their quality of life.

9- Knowing that bacteria are present in most habitats on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, water, and deep in the Earth's crust, there are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water.]

Conclusion

The human has acquired from Bacteria although it’s not known how and when, in addition there are 223 genes added to human in “horizontal transfer”.

This conclusion matches with Islamic explanation to Adam creation process as following:

1- Dust taken from different parts from Earth by the Angels.

2- Water added to this dust in heave.

3- The dust became clay and left for a while till it changed and became stinky, and this means that bacteria exist in this dust had reacted and duplicated. The proof is in the following verse, that ALLAH says that he created the Human from an altered (Hama’, stinky) mud:

وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الإِنسَانَ مِن صَلْصَالٍ مِّنْ حَمَإٍ مَّسْنُونٍ
And indeed, We created man from dried (sounding) clay of altered (stinky) mud. (26)

وقوله تعالى: من حَمَأٍ مَسْنُونٍ؛ قال أَبو عمرو: أَي متغير منتن؛ وقال أَبو الهيثم: سُنَّ الماءُ فهو مَسْنُون أَي تغير

4- Allah fashioned Adam (Sawara) in the form of human body, and added the new genes (223 “alien” genes). 

5- ALLAH blew the soul of human and became alive.

Some of Muslim scholars may refuse mentioning "mud Bacteria" in this process, but the following miraculous verse refers to it too, ALLAH says:

We have created man from an extract (Sulala) of clay. (23:12)

Similar verse was mentioned before in part (16) in human creation, but it was an extract of despised water, which is true for all humans after Adam (except Eve and Jesus), but the above verse is the only one related to Adam.

We explained that extract meaning as the DNA or chromosomes from the Sperms in the Semen water. But mentioning the DNA from Clay, it can only refer to DNA of bacteria, because it’s the only living thing possible in the mud.

This piece of information is very significant, with the new discoveries that show that Bacteria can carry complete segments of Human DNA, or it can be used to treat people who had cancer, especially “mud Bacteria” i.e. from Earth soil.  

So, were Adam created or evolved?

Technically, Adam was evolved and created by ALLAH’s hands at the same time, the process is shown in the following figure.

Also to confirm that this process took almost the last hour on Friday, approximate of 80 million years.




4- Creation of Eve

To be continued…

Thanks to ALLAH, Lord of the Worlds

References:

[1] Wikipedia, Neanderthal, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neanderthal

[2] Wikipedia, Y-chromosomal Adam, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y-chromosomal_Adam

[3] World Mysteries, Human Genome, http://www.world-mysteries.com/sci_1.htm

[4] Genome News Network, Researchers Challenge Recent Claim That Humans Acquired 223

[5] Britannica, Bacteria with Human DNA, you want a piece of me, http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2011/02/bacteria-with-human-dna-you-want-a-piece-of-me/


[7] Wikipedia, Bacteria, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria 

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