Wednesday, October 19, 2011

The Story of Creation (16 – B): Embryo’s Development Miracles in the Holy Quran


Index:
  1. The 3 Layers of Womb
  2. Pregnancy Hormones
  3. Splitting of Zygote Cell
  4. Egg Falling and its Implantation
  5. Development Phases
  6. Gene Expression inside Fetus     
  7. Embryo Creation Sequence
  8. Different Creations
  9. Starting of Heartbeat
  10. Embryo Sex Appearance
  11. Hearing, Sight, then Lungs Function
  12. Bones before Flesh
  13. Delivering Mother vs. Donator Mother
  14. Breast Feeding Period
  15. Birth of 6 months
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1-    The 3 Layers of Womb

[Science]

Quote from: The uterus

The uterus is made up of three layers:
 
The inner layer is the endometrium. This is the inside mucus lining of the uterus where the placenta attaches.

The middle layer is made of different types of muscles, collectively called the myometrium. During pregnancy these muscle cells grow ten times in length and three times in width. Some of these muscles run lengthwise from the cervix, over the top of the uterus (also called the fundus) back down to the cervix on the other side. They contract and shorten during labour, pulling up the cervix and pushing your baby down the birth canal.

The outer layer is the perimetrium. A fine outer layer separating the uterus from the intestines. [1]

[Quran]

ALLAH says that following:

خلقكم من نفس واحدة ثم جعل منها زوجها وانزل لكم من الانعام ثمانية ازواج يخلقكم في بطون امهاتكم خلقا من بعد خلق في ظلمات ثلاث ذلكم الله ربكم له الملك لا اله الا هو فانى تصرفون

He created you from a single person, then (once this person was created,) He made his match from him, and sent down for you eight pairs of the cattle. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation, in three layers of darkness. That is your Allah, your Lord. To Him belongs the whole Kingdom. There is no god but He. Then, to where are you being diverted (by your whims)?  [39:6]

The verse clearly states that ALLAH creates us inside our mother wombs under 3 darkness means 3 covering layers, which are the inner, middle and outer layers of the uterus.


2-    Pregnancy Hormones

[Science]

Quoted from: Event of a normal menstrual cycle and the hormones responsible for each stage
The following chart shows the sequence of events during the normal menstrual cycle. The different hormones are colored different and you can match them with the above picture to see what their level of presence is, in each stage:
  • Orange GnRH
  • Blue Estrogen
  • Red Leutinizing hormone (LH)
  • Green Progesterone (Prog)
  1. Hypothalamus releases Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  2. GnRH causes the pituitary gland to produce FSH. FSH reaches the ovaries via the blood stream. FSH causes the follicles to mature. Follicles are little balloon like sacs filled with cells and fluid and hold an egg. Each follicle contains one single egg
  3. Maturing follicles produce estrogen. Estrogen signals the brain, which slows do down the FSH production and starts LH production in pituitary glands.
  4. Estrogen also prepares the uterus for ovulation by thickening the blood vessels lining the uterus.
  5. Estrogen production boosts LH.
  6. LH surges and causes ovulation. The egg escapes, travels via the fallopian tube and goes to the Uterus.
  7. The empty follicle from which the egg was released is called as Corpus Luteum or yellow body. The Corpus Luteum produces Progesterone. Progesterone signals the brain to stop producing LH.
  8. Progesterone also prepares the uterus by thickening the uterus lining and also producing mucus to ease the passage of the sperm. The egg sits and waits for 24-48 hrs.
  9. If you get pregnant, the hCG hormone is produced by the developing embryo. This hormone signals the Corpus Luteum to keep making Progesterone and Estrogen. If you don’t get pregnant, the corpus luteum disintegrates (called as Corpus Albican) and stops producing Progesterone and Estrogen. The low levels of Progesterone and Estrogen causes menstruation to occur.
  10. The cycle starts all over again. [2]

[Quran]

Following to the above explanation, it clearly shows that level of Hormones inside the womb changes, especially Progesterone, which is responsible for being the woman ready for pregnancy, it begins low then it increases, and then it decreases again.

This is described in the following verse:
الله يعلم ما تحمل كل انثى وما تغيض الارحام وما تزداد وكل شيء عنده بمقدار

Allah knows what every female carries and what the wombs decrease or increase. Everything has measure with Him. [13:8]

The second part of the verse refer to the Hormones level change in the womb which will cause woman to carry (becomes pregnant) which is the first part of the verse.


3-    Splitting of Zygote Cell

[Science]

What Is a Zygote?

After a female egg is fertilized, the resulting one-celled organism becomes known as a zygote. Once the egg is fertilized, the zygote begins a two-week period of rapid cell division and will eventually become an embryo. The zygote divides through a process known as mitosis, in which each cell doubles by dividing into two cells. This two-week stage is known as the germinal period of development and covers the time of conception to the implantation of the embryo in the uterus [3], as shown in the below image [4].


[Quran]

In the following verse, prophets are swearing by God who created them, saying:
يا قوم لا اسالكم عليه اجرا ان اجري الا على الذي فطرني افلا تعقلون

O my people! I ask of you no reward for it. Lo! my reward is the concern only of Him Who made me [Fatarani]. Have ye then no sense? (11:51)
وما لي لا اعبد الذي فطرني واليه ترجعون

"Except Him (i.e. but Allâh Alone I worship none) Who did create [Fatarani] me, and verily, He will guide me." (43:27)
الا الذي فطرني فانه سيهدين

Save Him Who did create [Fatarani] me, for He will surely guide me. (43:27)

The word used for creation is “Fatar” which “create” is one of its meanings, but literally it means “split or divide into smaller parts” too, as in the following:

فطَرَ الشيءَ يَفْطُرُه فَطْراً فانْفَطَر وفطَّرَه: شقه.وتَفَطَّرَ الشيءُ: تشقق. والفَطْر الشق، وجمعه فُطُور. وأَصل الفَطْر: الشق.

When taking this meaning, the only state where “human” has been split into 2 or more, is when it was a Zygote cells and which keep dividing till it becomes a “blastocyst”.


4-    Egg Falling and its implantation

[Science]

Quoted from: Week 4 of Pregnancy: The Egg Implants

The fertilized egg and your uterus are making contact this week. After completing its six-day journey through your fallopian tube, the blastocyst you'll one day call your baby reaches its ultimate destination and begins to attach itself to the uterine lining. About 30 percent of the time, implantation bleeding will occur as that bundle of cells burrows its way into the uterine wall. [5] 
Implantation is the act of the fertilized egg attaching to the uterine wall. Once fertilization occurs, the fertilized egg remains in the fallopian tube for 3 days. It then enters the uterus where it gets very close to the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and begins to invade this endometrium to implant. [6]

[Hadith]

In the following Hadith, it says that within 40 nights: the sperm stay in the womb where it falls like blood (drop), then it becomes clot then become a lump:
كنا جلوسا عند عبد الله فذكروا رجلا فذكروا من خلقه فقال عبد الله أرأيتم لو قطعتم رأسه أكنتم تستطيون أن تغيروا خلقه حتى تغيروا خلقه إن النطفة لتستقر في الرحم أربعين ليلة ثم تنحدر دما ثم تكون علقة ثم تكون مضغة ثم يبعث الله ملكا فيكتب رزقه وخلقه وشقيا أو سعيدا. الراوي: عبدالله بن ربيعة المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: صحيح الأدب المفرد - الصفحة أو الرقم: 216. خلاصة حكم المحدث: حسن الإسناد موقوفا

Mentioning “falling as blood drop” after being sperm and before becoming a clot, this a clear indication for the falling of fertilized egg through fallopian tube as described above.

[Quran]

This process of Egg implantation is described in the following verses:

أَلَمْ نَخْلُقكُّم مِّن مَّاء مَّهِينٍ (20) فَجَعَلْنَاهُ فِي قَرَارٍ مَّكِينٍ (21) إِلَى قَدَرٍ مَّعْلُومٍ (22)

Did We not create you from a worthless fluid? 2 (20) Then We put it in a firm place of rest (21) For a known period. (77:22)
After reaching the Sperm and fertilizing the egg, ALLAH says that we put it a firm place, so it won’t move and the fixing of egg inside the womb is called “Egg Implantation”.


5-    Development Phases

[Science]

The average length of time for prenatal development to complete is 38 weeks from the date of conception. During this time, a single-celled zygote develops in a series of stages into a full-term baby. The three primary stages of prenatal development are the germinal stage, the embryonic stage, and the fetal stage.

Germinal stage: Conception occurs when the female egg (ovum) is fertilized by a the male sperm.

Embryonic stage: The embryonic stage begins after implantation and lasts until eight weeks after conception.

Fetal stage: Prenatal development is most dramatic during the fetal stage. When an embryo becomes a fetus at eight weeks, it is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) in length from crown to rump and weighs about 3 grams (0.1 ounce). By the time the fetus is considered full-term at 38 weeks gestation, he or she may be 50 centimeters (20 inches) or 3.3 kilograms (7.3 pounds) [7]. All are shown in the below image [8].



[Quran]

In the above explanation, the development of the embryo passes though development phases: germinal period, embryonic, then fetal period. These changes are referred in the following verse, as creating the baby in different creation periods:
خلقكم من نفس واحدة ثم جعل منها زوجها وانزل لكم من الانعام ثمانية ازواج يخلقكم في بطون امهاتكم خلقا من بعد خلق في ظلمات ثلاث ذلكم الله ربكم له الملك لا اله الا هو فانى تصرفون

He created you from one being, then from that (being) He made its mate; and He hath provided for you of cattle eight kinds. He created you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation, in a threefold gloom. Such is Allah, your Lord. His is the Sovereignty. There is no Allah save Him. How then are ye turned away? [39:6]


6-    Gene Expression inside Fetus 

[Science]

Quoted from: Gene

A gene is made up of short sections of DNA which are contained on a chromosome within the nucleus of a cell. Genes control the development and function of all organs and all working systems in the body. A gene has a certain influence on how the cell works; the same gene in many different cells determines a certain physical or biochemical feature of the whole body (e.g. eye color or reproductive functions). All human cells hold approximately 30,000 different genes. Even though each cell has identical copies of all of the same genes, different cells express or repress different genes. [9]

Quoted from: Can genes be turned on and off in cells?

Each cell expresses, or turns on, only a fraction of its genes. The rest of the genes are repressed, or turned off. The process of turning genes on and off is known as gene regulation. Gene regulation is an important part of normal development. Genes are turned on and off in different patterns during development to make a brain cell look and act different from a liver cell or a muscle cell, for example. Gene regulation also allows cells to react quickly to changes in their environments. Although we know that the regulation of genes is critical for life, this complex process is not yet fully understood. [10]

Quoted from: Gene Expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as rRNA genes or tRNA genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life - eukaryotes (including multicellular organisms), prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and viruses - to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. [11]

Quoted from: Global Gene Expression during the Human Organogenesis: From Transcription Profiles to Function Predictions
We will highlight a gene expression database of human embryos from the 4th to the 9th week. The analysis of gene regulation during this period reveals that genes functioning in a given developmental process tend to be coordinately regulated during human embryogenesis.
The Carnegie Stages (CS 1-23) for human embryos are based on the development of structures, not in the size or the number of days of development and it covers the first 60 days of development, at the end of which the term embryo is usually replaced with the term fetus.
Similarly, Yi et al. discovered an up-regulation of gene categories enriched with genes involved in multi-cellular organismal development/processes, cell adhesion, cell surface receptor-linked signaling, and cell-cell signaling, which correlate well with the differentiation and development of organs that takes place during the 4th-9th weeks, and observed the down-regulation of gene categories associated with various metabolic processes and transcriptional regulation that are likely involved in the transition of the embryo from mainly cell proliferation in the 4th week to mostly organ development by the 8th-9th weeks. In addition, Yi et al. identified many genes with an arch-shaped gene expression pattern during the 4th-9th week of development, which were enriched with a number of GO categories, such as those related to eye development with the peak level expression of the genes correlated well with the formation of the lens and the development of retinal pigmentation during the 5th-7th weeks of embryogenesis. [12]



[Quran]

As short summary of the above explanation:
  • Genes are short sections of DNA that contain all physical or biochemical feature of the whole body.
  • Genes pass through a change process called Gene regulation where genes are switched On or OFF.
  • Gene expression process is done during Carnegie stage in human embryos between the 4th – 9th weeks which will cause body organisms to start its formation, such as eyes, ears, etc..
In the following verse, ALLAH describes how he fashions us “humans” inside the wombs, and he composes our images as he wills:
هو الذي يصوركم في الارحام كيف يشاء لا اله الا هو العزيز الحكيم

He it is who fashions you in the wombs as He wills. Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. (3:6)
في اي صورة ما شاء ركبك

He composed (Rakabak) you in whichever Image (form) He willed. (82:8)

Knowing that, using the verbs “fashion” and using the word “Rakbak” means to structure or to compose, as if talking about a construction of blocks, knowing that this verb can’t be used as construction a human being, therefore these verses clearly refer to the gene expression process; as following:
  1. ALLAH constructs “Rakab” our genes blocks inside our wombs, which will lead to
  2. Complete our DNA image (fashion, “Sawar”) inside our genes, which will lead later to
  3. All our physical and emotional features.
This process “fashioning” the human embryos explained in more detail in the following Hadith too:




[Hadith]

Let’s read the following miraculous Hadith:
قال : لاتعجب سمعت رسول الله مرارا ذات عدد يقول : إن النطفة إذا وقعت في الرحم أربعين ليلة ، و قال أصحابي : خمسة و أربعين ليلة ، نفخ فيه الروح ، قال : فيجيء ملك الرحم فيدخل فيصور له عظمه و لحمه و دمه و شعره ، و بشره و سمعه و بصره ثم يقول : أي رب أذكر أم أنثى ؟ فيقضي الله إليه ما يشاء ، و يكتب الملك ، ثم يقول أي رب أثره ؟ فيقضي الله تعالى ، و يكتب الملك ، فيقول أي رب أجله ؟ فيقضي الله ما يشاء ، و يكتب الملك ، ثم تطوى تلك الصحيفة فلا تمس إلى يوم القيامة.
الراوي: حذيفة بن أسيد الغفاري المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: تخريج كتاب السنة - الصفحة أو الرقم: 179
خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده صحيح على شرط الشيخين

Thereupon the person said to him: You are surprised at this, whereas I have heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saving: When forty nights pass after the semen gets into the womb, Allah sends the angel and blows in him the soul. Then he fashions his sense of hearing, sense of sight, his skin, his flesh, his bones, and then says: My Lord, would he be male or female? And your Lord decides as He desires and the angel then puts down that also and then says: My Lord, what about his age? And your Lord decides as He likes it and the angel puts it down. Then he says: My Lord, what about his livelihood? And then the Lord decides as He likes and the angel writes it down, and then the angel gets out with his scroll of destiny in his hand and nothing is added to it and nothing is subtracted from it.  (Muslim - Book #033, Hadith #6393)

As explained above the genes pass under expression process to build the new human body features, in the Hadith explains the process as following:
  1. On the 40th (day or night), Angel is sent by ALLAH to the embryo, during the Carnegie stage.
  2. The Angel will blow the soul into the small fetus, where then its heart will start beating.
  3. The Angel will construct the image of new human, means the genes expression process will start, (not necessary instantly it may take weeks).
  4. The Angel will request from ALLAH, the features such as: hearing, eyes, color of his skin, his bones shape, etc… means complete the 44 chromosomes of the new human.
  5. The Angel will request the details of whether male or female, which means building the last 45 & 46th chromosomes, the sex genes.
  6. Then Angel write down (which means in certain place not necessary in the genes) 2 more things:
o   His \ her age, which will decide his date of death.
o   His \ her livelihood, happy or sad, i.e. good or bad person, believer or infidel, etc..


7-    Embryo Creation Sequence

[Science]

Quoted from: Week 4

These notes cover the fourth week of embryonic development, which is the beginning of organogenesis, (specific tissues and systems are beginning to differentiate) from the trilaminar embryo.
On the embryo surface sensory placodes and limb buds appear. Sensory placodes (otic, lens, nasal) will form specific components of the ear, eye and nose. Limb buds form from ectoderm and mesoderm (somite) components and are the "paddle-like" projections from the trunk which will form all the upper and lower limb components.
Within the embryo, this period of organogensis is usually extended to cover until 8 weeks of development. Folding of the embryo continues and the earliest functioning organ is the heart. Other systems such as the circulatory, digestive, urogenital and nervous system begin to all take shape. [13]

Quoted from: Week 5

Facts: Week 5, 31 - 35 days, 5 - 7 mm
Ectoderm: sensory placodes, lens pit, otocyst, nasal placode, primary/secondary vesicles, fourth ventricle of brain, Mesoderm: continued segmentation of paraxial mesoderm (more than 30 somite pairs), heart prominence.  Head: 1st, 2nd and 3rd pharyngeal arch, forebrain, site of lens placode, site of otic placode, stomodeum.
Body: heart, liver, umbilical cord, mesonephric ridge, Limb: upper and lower limb buds. [14]




[Quran]

In the Week 5 & 6, there is 2 distinguishable phases of embryo creation, that in:

Week 5: the embryo shape is taking the shape of Leech (type of segmented worms).

Week 6: it will be like a chewed substance, and during this week some essentials parts of human body has been created like: heart, liver, umbilical cord, but others still not created like eyes, ears, lungs which will come later as we will see later.
These 3 facts: leech shape, then chewed substance shape, where some organisms are created and some not are mentioned in the following miraculous verses:

ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاهُ نُطْفَةً فِي قَرَارٍ مَّكِينٍ (13) ثُمَّ خَلَقْنَا النُّطْفَةَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْعَلَقَةَ مُضْغَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْمُضْغَةَ عِظَامًا فَكَسَوْنَا الْعِظَامَ لَحْمًا ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَاهُ خَلْقًا آخَرَ فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ (14)

Thereafter We made him (Human) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male and female sexual discharge and lodged it) in a safe lodging (womb of the woman). (13) Then We made the Nutfah into a clot “Alaaqa” (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot “Alaaqa” into a little lump of flesh “Mudgah”, then We made out of that little lump of flesh “Mudgah” bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation. So Blessed is Allâh, the Best of creators. (23: 14) 
يا ايها الناس ان كنتم في ريب من البعث فانا خلقناكم من تراب ثم من نطفة ثم من علقة ثم من مضغة مخلقة وغير مخلقة لنبين لكم ونقر في الارحام ما نشاء الى اجل مسمى ثم نخرجكم طفلا ..

O mankind! If you are in doubt about the Resurrection, then verily! We have created you (i.e. Adam) from dust, then from a Nutfah, then from a clot “Alaaqa” then from a little lump of flesh, “mudgaha” some formed and some unformed, that We may make (it) clear to you. And We cause whom We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed term, then We bring you out as infants... (22:5)
The Word “Alaaga” means literally things: a leech which is a kind of worm that sucks blood, or Clot of blood, or a hanged substance, and all these meanings fit to the embryo shape in week 4.

The word “Mudgaha” means literally a chewed substance, where teeth shape appears on it, and this is exactly the shape in week 5, as shown in the below images [15]:



8-    Different Creations

[Science]

In the following chart, it shows how all embryos forms starting with same steps, but later on after passing the Carnegie stage, it will differ from each other and start forming its final shape whether human, animal, bird, fish, etc..


[Quran]

In the following verse it mentions that after being “Mudgaha” (i.e. Carnegie stage, shown in the above image as stage A) bones and flesh will appear, and then it will differ in creation:

ثُمَّ خَلَقْنَا النُّطْفَةَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْعَلَقَةَ مُضْغَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْمُضْغَةَ عِظَامًا فَكَسَوْنَا الْعِظَامَ لَحْمًا ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَاهُ خَلْقًا آخَرَ فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ (14)

Thereafter We made him (the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male and female sexual discharge and lodged it) in a safe lodging (womb of the woman). (13) Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another (different) creation . So Blessed is Allâh, the Best of creators. (23: 14)

Mentioning it will become a different creation, this to note that it’s only after being in Carnegie stage, then the different forms of human, animals, birds, reptiles or fish will take its shape.


9-    Starting of Heartbeat

[Science]

When will I be able to hear my baby's heartbeat?

From the date of the last menstrual period, the fetal heart will begin to beat on the 22nd day of development. This means that by the 5th week of pregnancy, the heart is beating. Until week 9, the fetal heart rate will increase 3.3 beats per day. In the early stages, the fetal heart rate is approximately 80-85 beats per minute (bpm). However, by the 9th week your baby's heart beat will be in the range of 155 to 195 beats per minute. [16]


Re: What causes the first heart beat?

Because beating is an intrinsic property of the cardiac myocytes, exactly what causes the heart to begin contracting is essentially a cell biological question. Unfortunately, there is not yet a definite answer to this question. We are beginning to understand how cardiac myocytes are specified very early in development, long before the heart has even formed. And we are learning more about their differentiation--that is, how these cells, which initially are not any different from cells that will give rise to the stomach or to muscles in the arm, develop the characteristics that allow them to contribute to the beating heart. From research in these areas, it is clear that certain things are required in order for the heart to beat. For instance, cardiac myocytes must have contractile proteins, such as actin and myosin, that are properly assembled into a scaffold (known as a sarcom ere) that allows contraction to take place. In addition, these cells must have specialized structures called gap junctions, which allow them to communicate so they can beat together in a synchronized fashion. Thus, while it is clear that certain elements must be in place for the heart to beat, it is not yet clear what stimuli are responsible for initiating contraction. [17]

[Hadith]

It’s shown very clearly in the above chart, it’s during the 6th week that heart will start beating, meaning between the 36th – 42th days after pregnancy, but to know exactly when? Let’s read the following Hadiths: 
قال : لاتعجب سمعت رسول الله مرارا ذات عدد يقول : إن النطفة إذا وقعت في الرحم أربعين ليلة ، و قال أصحابي : خمسة و أربعين ليلة ، نفخ فيه الروح ، قال : فيجيء ملك الرحم فيدخل فيصور له عظمه و لحمه و دمه و شعره ، و بشره و سمعه و بصره ثم يقول : أي رب أذكر أم أنثى ؟ فيقضي الله إليه ما يشاء ، و يكتب الملك ، ثم يقول أي رب أثره ؟ فيقضي الله تعالى ، و يكتب الملك ، فيقول أي رب أجله ؟ فيقضي الله ما يشاء ، و يكتب الملك ، ثم تطوى تلك الصحيفة فلا تمس إلى يوم القيامة.
الراوي: حذيفة بن أسيد الغفاري المحدث: الألباني - المصدر: تخريج كتاب السنة - الصفحة أو الرقم: 179
خلاصة حكم المحدث: إسناده صحيح على شرط الشيخين

Abdullah b. Mas'ud reported: Evil one is he who is evil in the womb of his mother and the good one is he who takes lesson from the (fate of) others. The narrator came to a person from amongst the Companion of Allah's Me ssenger (may peace be upon him) who was called Hudhaifa b. Usaid Ghifari and said: How can a person be an evil one without (cornmittilng an evil) deed? Thereupon the person said to him: You are surprised at this, whereas I have heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saving: When forty nights pass after the semen gets into the womb, Allah sends the angel and gives him the shape. Then he creates his sense of hearing, sense of sight, his skin, his flesh, his bones, and then says: My Lord, would he be male or female? And your Lord decides as He desires and the angel then puts down that also and then says: My Lord, what about his age? And your Lord decides as He likes it and the angel puts it down. Then he says: My Lord, what about his livelihood? And then the Lord decides as He likes and the angel writes it down, and then the angel gets out with his scroll of destiny in his hand and nothing is added to it and nothing is subtracted from it.  (Muslim - Book #033, Hadith #6393)
إن خلق أحدكم يجمع في بطن أمه أربعين يوما أو أربعين ليلة ، ثم يكون علقة مثله ، ثم يكون مضغة مثله ، ثم يبعث إليه الملك ، فيؤذن بأربع كلمات ، فيكتب : رزقه ، وأجله ، وعمله ، وشقي أم سعيد ، ثم ينفخ فيه الروح ، فإن أحدكم ليعمل بعمل أهل الجنة حتى لا يكون بينها وبينه إلا ذراع ، فيسبق عليه الكتاب ، فيعمل بعمل أهل النار فيدخل النار . وإن أحدكم ليعمل بعمل أهل النار ، حتى ما يكون بينها وبينه إلا ذراع ، فيسبق عليه الكتاب ، فيعمل عمل أهل الجنة فيدخلها
الراوي: عبدالله بن مسعود المحدث: البخاري - المصدر: صحيح البخاري - الصفحة أو الرقم: 7454. خلاصة حكم المحدث: [صحيح[

(7) Narrated 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud: Allah's Apostle the true and truly inspired, narrated to us, "The creation of everyone of you starts with the process of collecting the material for his body within forty days and forty nights in the womb of his mother. Then he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period (40 days) and then he becomes like a piece of flesh for a similar period. Then an angel is sent to him (by Allah) and the angel is allowed (ordered) to write four things; his livelihood, his (date of) death, his deeds, and whether he will be a wretched one or a blessed one (in the Hereafter) and then the soul is breathed into him. (Bukhari - Book #93, Hadith #546)

The above Hadith talks about a period of 40 or 45 nights or days, and these are in the 6th week of pregnancy, where an angel is sent to blow the soul of the new enfant where then and only then the heart will start beating.

As mentioned in the Hadith that it may be on the 40th or 45th night (or day), some used these uncertainty to fight Islam and to say why it’s unknown for the prophet to know exactly when the blowing of soul, but this is also a miracle where there is a difference between a girl or boy embryo will start beating where girl starts before by few days, and maybe it’s because of its size (ALLAH knows better).

Therefore answering the above question in Science section about: what exactly caused the heart to start beating?

It is because the angel sent by ALLAH to start the life of the new child.


10-    Embryo Sex Appearance

[Science]

Quoted from: Pregnancy week by week

Week 11: Baby's genitals develop
At the beginning of the 11th week of pregnancy, or the ninth week after conception, your baby's head still makes up about half of its length. However, your baby's body is about to catch up, growing rapidly in the coming weeks.
Your baby is now officially described as a fetus. This week your baby's eyes are widely separated, the eyelids fused and the ears low set. Red blood cells are beginning to form in your baby's liver. By the end of this week, your baby's external genitalia will start developing into a penis or clitoris and labia majora.
By now your baby might measure about 2 inches (50 millimeters) long from crown to rump and weigh almost 1/3 ounce (8 grams). [18]

[Quran]

After the Carnegie stage of weeks 5 & 6 explained above, the fetus will continue developing till in week 11, its gentiles start to appear and then it’s possible to know whether it will be a boy or girl.
The following verse explains this:
يا ايها الناس ان كنتم في ريب من البعث فانا خلقناكم من تراب ثم من نطفة ثم من علقة ثم من مضغة مخلقة وغير مخلقة لنبين لكم ونقر في الارحام ما نشاء الى اجل مسمى ثم نخرجكم طفلا ..

O mankind! If you are in doubt about the Resurrection, then verily! We have created you (i.e. Adam) from dust, then from a Nutfah, then from a clot then from a little lump of flesh,— some formed and some unformed, that We may make (it) clear to you. And We cause whom We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed term, then We bring you out as infants... (22:5)

After mentioning the Carnegie stage, ALLAH mentions the following: “We may make it clear to you”, and the only thing that will be clear for us and it’s more important for all parents and doctors is to check the health of the fetus and its gender, and this a sign that it will appear only after passing the Carnegie stage “Mudagha”.


11-    Hearing, Sight, then Lungs Function

[Science]

Quoted from: Pregnancy week by week

Week 18: Baby begins to hear
Eighteen weeks into your pregnancy, or 16 weeks after conception, your baby's ears begin to stand out on the sides of his or her head. Your baby might begin to hear.
By now your baby might be 5 1/2 inches (140 millimeters) long from crown to rump and weigh 7 ounces (200 grams).
Week 28: Baby's eyes open
Twenty-eight weeks into your pregnancy, or 26 weeks after conception, your baby's eyelids are partially open and eyelashes have formed. Your baby is gaining weight, which is smoothing out many of the wrinkles in his or her skin.
By now your baby might be nearly 10 inches (250 millimeters) long from crown to rump and weigh nearly 2 1/4 pounds (1,000 grams). Otherwise healthy babies born this week have a 90 percent chance of survival without physical or neurological impairment — and the odds improve with each passing week.

Week 30: Baby's eyes are wide open
Thirty weeks into your pregnancy, or 28 weeks after conception, your baby's eyes are wide open a good part of the time. Your baby might have a good head of hair by this week. Red blood cells are now forming in your baby's bone marrow.
By now your baby might be more than 10 1/2 inches (270 millimeters) long from crown to rump and weigh nearly 3 pounds (1,300 grams).

Week 32: Baby practices breathing
Thirty-two weeks into your pregnancy, or 30 weeks after conception, your baby's toenails are visible.
Although your baby's lungs aren't fully formed, he or she practices breathing. Your baby's body begins absorbing vital minerals, such as iron and calcium from the intestinal tract. The layer of soft, downy hair that has covered your baby's skin for the past few months — known as lanugo — starts to fall off this week.
By now your baby might be 11 inches (280 millimeters) long from crown to rump and weigh 3 3/4 pounds (1,700 grams). [19]

[Quran]

As shown above the hearing will be ready before eyes then lungs, this fact is mentioned in all the following verses where they are mentioned in the same order too: 
وهو الذي انشا لكم السمع والابصار والافئدة قليلا ما تشكرون

He is the One who created for you ears and eyes and hearts [Afedah]. Little you are grateful. (23:78)
ثم سواه ونفخ فيه من روحه وجعل لكم السمع والابصار والافئدة قليلا ما تشكرون

Then He gave him a proportioned shape, and breathed into him of His spirit. And He granted you the (power of) hearing and the eyes and the hearts [Afedah]. Little you give thanks. (32:9)
قل هو الذي انشاكم وجعل لكم السمع والابصار والافئدة قليلا ما تشكرون

Say, “He is the One who has originated you, and made for you ears and eyes and hearts [Afedah]. How little you pay gratitude!” (67:23)

The word “Afedah” that is translated as heart in the English version means actually more than heart, but most probably the “lungs” as mentioned in the Arabic translation for this word and it’s different than heart.
ومنه: الفُؤادُ: للقَلْبِ، مُذَكَّرٌ، أو هو ما يَتَعَلَّقُ بالمَريءِ من كَبِدٍ ورِئَةٍ وقَلْبٍ، ج: أفْئِدَةٌ. وفي الحديث: أَتاكم أَهلُ اليمن هم أَرقُّ أَفئِدةً وأَلْيَنُ قلوباً. وفأَده يَفْأَدُه فَأْداً: أَصاب فؤاده. وفي حديث عطاء: قيل له: رجل مَفؤُودٌ يَنْفُثُ دماً أَحَدَثٌ هو؟ قال: لا؛ أَي يُوجعهُ فُؤَادُه فَيَتَقَيَّأُ دماً.

12-    Bones before Flesh

[Science]

Quoted from: Pregnancy week by week

Week 15: Baby's skeleton develops bones
Fifteen weeks into your pregnancy, or 13 weeks after conception, your baby is growing rapidly. Your baby's skeleton is developing bones, which will become visible on ultrasound images in a few weeks. Your baby's scalp hair pattern also is forming.

Week 17: Fat accumulates
Seventeen weeks into your pregnancy, or 15 weeks after conception, fat stores begin to develop under your baby's skin. The fat will provide energy and help keep your baby warm after birth.

Week 29: Baby's bones are fully developed
Twenty-nine weeks into your pregnancy, or 27 weeks after conception, your baby's bones are fully developed, but they're still soft and pliable.

Week 35: Protective coating thickens
Thirty-five weeks into your pregnancy, or 33 weeks after conception, your baby's limbs are becoming chubby. Your baby is gaining weight rapidly — about 1/2 pound (227 grams) a week for the next month.

Week 36: Rapid weight gain begins
Thirty-six weeks into your pregnancy, or 34 weeks after conception, the crowded conditions inside your uterus might make it harder for your baby to give you a punch. However, you'll probably still feel lots of stretches, rolls and wiggles. You might want to check on your baby's movements from time to time (kick count) — especially if you think you've noticed decreased activity. Ask your health care provider how many movements you should detect in a certain number of hours. [20]

[Quran]

In the following verse, clearly it mentions the creation of bones first then it will be covered by flesh:

ثُمَّ خَلَقْنَا النُّطْفَةَ عَلَقَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْعَلَقَةَ مُضْغَةً فَخَلَقْنَا الْمُضْغَةَ عِظَامًا فَكَسَوْنَا الْعِظَامَ لَحْمًا ثُمَّ أَنشَأْنَاهُ خَلْقًا آخَرَ فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ (14)

Thereafter We made him (the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male and female sexual discharge and lodged it) in a safe lodging (womb of the woman). (13) Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump “Mudgha” of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another (different) creation . So Blessed is Allâh, the Best of creators. (23: 14)

And similar to the technical expression of flesh coating the bones, ALLAH uses the similar expression as “clothing”. Let see this miracle process in the following movies:

1 From Embryo to Fetus




13-    Delivering Mother vs. Egg Donator Mother

[Science]

Am I the biological mom of the child conceived via egg donation?

The pregnant mother’s body is responsible for the growth of the fetus. The fetus takes its required fluids and "food" compounds from the mother’s blood via the placenta for the 40 or so weeks of its development. It is the mother’s flesh and blood that results in the baby's flesh and blood. She is the child’s biological mother and the child is her biological son or daughter. [21]

Of course, you know that a donor egg recipient gives birth to the baby. But, did you know that a donor egg recipient/birth mother's genes will affect how the donor egg's genes are expressed?  It's true.  Did you also know that a donor egg baby has the blood of the birth mother in him/her and lives off the birth mother's cells while in uterus? That's also true.
My doctor, who is RE, has told me that she believes that a DE Birth Mom is a biological mother.  I've also heard some say that a DE baby really has two biological mothers.   Obviously, the baby only has one genetic mother. [22]

[Quran]
As explained above in gene expression that is done within the 6th week, with these opinions that embryo development will definitely be affected by the blood of the biological mother, ALLAH clearly says in the following verse that Mothers are only those who delivered their babies:
الذين يظاهرون منكم من نسائهم ما هن امهاتهم ان امهاتهم الا اللائي ولدنهم وانهم ليقولون منكرا من القول وزورا وان الله لعفو غفور

Those among you who make their wives unlawful to them by (Zihâr) (i.e. by saying to them "You are like my mother's back.") they cannot be their mothers. None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth. And verily, they utter an ill word and a lie. And verily, Allâh is Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving. (58:2)

Knowing that this concept is what legally and official widely accepted too.


14-    Breast Feeding Period

[Science]

The immune and nonimmune protection provided by milk results in a lower incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and other gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in breast-fed infants than in formula-fed infants. The incidence of otitis media is also lower than in formula-fed infants. In addition to protection against some infectious diseases, breast-fed infants might also be protected at later ages from diseases that are sequelae of infectious insults (eg, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, and Crohn’s disease). Immune factors provided by human milk that compensate for their delayed production by the infant are summarized in (following) Table: [23]



[Quran]

It’s clear that all immune factors that may benefit the infant must pass within duration of 24 months (2 years) maximum; which is mentioned in the following verse too:
والوالدات يرضعن اولادهن حولين كاملين لمن اراد ان يتم الرضاعة

Mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years; (that is) for those who wish to complete the suckling. ... [2:233]

And using the word “complete the suckling”, as referring to the whole process of transferring immune systems from mothers to children, which needs a period of 24 months.


15-    Birth of 6 months

[Science]

Mortality and Morbidity

A study by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network was undertaken to relate other known risk factors with likelihood of survival and impairment. The study reported that 83% of infants born at 22-25 weeks' gestation received intensive care (consisting of mechanical ventilation). Of all study infants whose outcomes were known at 18-22 months, 49% died, 61% died or had profound impairment, and 73% died or had impairment. [24]

[Quran]

The duration of 22-25 weeks, is within the 6th months of the fetus with a highy need for intensive care for the new born baby, and younger than this it mostly won’t survive.

Let’s read the following verse:
ووصينا الانسان بوالديه احسانا حملته امه كرها ووضعته كرها وحمله وفصاله ثلاثون شهرا

And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. His mother bears him with hardship And she brings him forth with hardship, and the bearing of him, and the weaning of him is thirty months [46:15]

In the above verse, it mentions the carrying of a child till its weaning (which was mentioned above is for 24 months) is 30 months, this means that minimum pregnancy duration could be:

30 months – 24 months = 6 months, similar to what is mentioned above.


Now, let’s see the reaction of some scientists on such signs and miracles mentioned in the holy Quran in the following movies:


Scientists' Comments on The Quran (Part-1)


Scientists' Comments on The Quran (Part-2)



Thanks to ALLAH, Lord of the Worlds

References:


[2] Pcos Journal, The tale of 4 Hormones, http://pcosjournal.com/hormones-normal-menstrual-cycle/


[4] Info Visual, Human Body, http://www.infovisual.info/03/067_en.html

[5] What to Expect, Week4 of Pregnancy: The Egg Implants,  http://www.whattoexpect.com/pregnancy/your-body/week-4/fertilized-egg.aspx

[6] Baby Corner, Implantation of a Fertilized Egg, http://www.thebabycorner.com/page/1260/

[7] Children’s Health, Prenatal Development, http://www.healthofchildren.com/P/Prenatal-Development.html

[8] Critical Periods of Fetal Development, http://www.cerebral-palsy.net/update2001/fetal.html

[9] Wikibooks, Human Physiology / Genetics and inheritance, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Human_Physiology/Genetics_and_inheritance

[10] Genetics Home Reference, How Genes Work? http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/howgeneswork/geneonoff

[11] News Medical.com, What is Gene Expression? http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Gene-Expression.aspx

[12] International Journal of Biological Sciences, Global Gene Expression during the Human Organogenesis: From Transcription Profiles to Function Predictions   http://www.biolsci.org/v07p1068.htm



[15] The Religion of Islam, The Quran on Human Embryonic Development, http://www.islamreligion.com/articles/216/


[17] MadSci Network: Anatomy, What causes the first heart beat, http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1999-09/937254975.An.r.html

[18] MayoClinic, Pregnancy Week by Week, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fetal-development/PR00113

[19] MayoClinic, Pregnancy Week by Week, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fetal-development/PR00113

[20] MayoClinic, Pregnancy Week by Week, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fetal-development/PR00113

[21] Gift ov life, Egg Donation Recipients Frequently Asked Questions,  http://www.giftovlife.com/EggDonorParents_FAQ.aspx

[22] BabyCenter.com, Sensitivity Awareness - Biological versus Genetic Mother Terms http://community.babycenter.com/post/a25865113/sensitivity_awareness_-_biological_versus_genetic_mother_terms

[23] asklenore.info, Breastfeeding: Unraveling the Mysteries of Mother’s Milk, http://asklenore.info/breastfeeding/resources/mysteries.shtml

[24] Medscape.com, Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant, Mortality and Morbidity, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/979717-overview#aw2aab6b3

1 comment:

  1. Mashaa Allah... jazakalah khairan... thank you for sharing...

    ReplyDelete