Friday, July 29, 2011

The Story of Creation (15 - A): Animals Evolution, Migration, Nations, Ecosystem in the Holy Quran..


Index:

1.    Animal Evolution
2.    Continuity of Evolution
3.    Animals Category
4.    Animals Nations
5.    Animal Migration
6.    Animal Navigation
7.    Animal Ecosystem
8.    Animal Sleeping
9.    Forbidden Animals (Pork)
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1.    Animal Evolution

[Science]

Quoted from: Plant and Animal Evolution

All animals and plants are classified as multicellular eukaryotes: their bodies are made up of large numbers of cells, and microscopic inspection of these cells reveals that they contain a nucleus and a number of other organelles. Compared to prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria, plants and animals have a relatively recent evolutionary origin.

Like the plants, animals evolved in the sea. And that is where they remained for at least 600 million years. This is because, in the absence of a protective ozone layer, the land was bathed in lethal levels of UV radiation. Once photosynthesis had raised atmospheric oxygen levels high enough, the ozone layer formed, meaning that it was then possible for living things to venture onto the land.

Recently many scientists have begun to question whether the Cambrian explosion was a real event, or a reflection of the patchiness of this ancient fossil record. Genetic data suggest that multicellular animals evolved around 1000 million years ago; this is supported by fossil embryos from rocks in China that date back 600 million years. These embryos are more complex than those of simple organisms such as sponges and jellyfish, which suggests that multicellular animals must have evolved much further back in time. In addition, trilobites were a very diverse group even early in the Cambrian, and some scientists suggest that this indicates that the arthropod group must have had a much earlier evolutionary origin. [1]


[Quran]

There are 3 verses that indicate to Animal Evolution in the Holy Quran:

1- As explained in part 3 “Earth Formation”, that on 4th day (i.e. 6 – 4 billion years ago), God planned the sustenance for Earth dwellers, then he rose to the universe while it was still smoke and created the 7 heavens, ALLAH says:

وجعل فيها رواسي من فوقها وبارك فيها وقدر فيها اقواتها في اربعة ايام سواء للسائلين

He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured (Kaddar) therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four Days equal, for all those who ask (about its creation). (41:10)

Using the verbs planned “measured: Kaddar” and “blessed” the sustenance of Earth dwellers, since they were planned means they were not in their final form, but planned to be in their final form and this covers plants and animal evolution.

2- The following verse explains how ALLAH created the whole universe and he created all living and moving creatures (Dawab) i.e. Animals, the verb used is “Bath” means scattering and dispersing, and this verb indicates the division of animals’ types from common origin: 
 
خلق السماوات بغير عمد ترونها والقى في الارض رواسي ان تميد بكم وبث فيها من كل دابة وانزلنا من السماء ماء فانبتنا فيها من كل زوج كريم

He has created the heavens without any pillars, that you see and has set on the earth firm mountains, lest it should shake with you. And He has scattered (Bath) therein moving (living) creatures of all kinds. And We send down water (rain) from the sky, and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein. (31:10)
بَثَّ الشيءَ والخَبَرَ يَبُثُّه ويَبِثُّه بَثّاً، وأَبَثَّه، بمعنًى، فانْبَثَّ: فَرَّقه فتَفَرَّقَ، ونَشَره

3- As mentioned above that all animal evolution has started in Oceans water, and the following verse clearly states that all animals were created and started from water:

والله خلق كل دابة من ماء فمنهم من يمشي على بطنه ومنهم من يمشي على رجلين ومنهم من يمشي على اربع يخلق الله ما يشاء ان الله على كل شيء قدير

Allâh has created every moving (living) creature from water. Of them there are some that creep on their bellies, some that walk on two legs, and some that walk on four. Allâh creates what He wills. Verily! Allâh is Able to do all things. (24:45)

Knowing that, this evolution doesn’t cover the “Cattle” animals, which will be explained later on in Part B.


2.    Continuity of Evolution

[Science]

Quoted from - Evolution in Action:

Evolutionary change continues to this day, and it will proceed so long as life itself exists. In recent years, many bacterial pathogens have evolved resistance to antibiotics used to cure infections, thereby requiring the development of new and more costly treatments. In some frightening cases, bacteria have evolved resistance to every available antibiotic, so there is no longer any effective treatment. In the case of HIV, which causes AIDS, significant viral evolution occurs within the course of infection of a single patient, and this rapid evolution enables the virus to evade the immune system. [2]

With cold and flu season in full swing, the fact that viruses and bacteria rapidly evolve is apparent with every sneeze, sniffle, and cough. A new report explains for the first time how humans keep up with microbes by rearranging the genes that make antibodies to foreign invaders. This research fills a significant gap in our understanding of how the immune system helps us survive. [3]


[Quran]

The following verse clearly states that the dispersion and creation of living (moving) creatures is in continuous phase, as the verb used is “Yabath” which is in Present Tense and not in the past as in the above verse, which means that creation of new living things is still continuous and never stopped:
وفي خلقكم وما يبث من دابة ايات لقوم يوقنون

And in your creation, and what he scatters (Yabath) of moving (living) creatures are signs for people who have Faith with certainty. (45:4)


3.    Animals Category

Quoted from: Animal Kingdom Phylogeny

In vertebrates, the notochord is replaced by the vertebral column. Most vertebrates also have a head region, endoskeleton, and paired appendages: 1- Jawless Fishes (lamprey & hagfish), 2- Cartilage Fishes (sharks & rays), 3- Bony Fishes (salmon, goldfish, carp), 4-Amphibians. 5- Reptiles, 6- Birds, 7- Mammals: [4]


[Quran]

The above classification for Animal kingdom includes 4 groups that live or survive in water, but the last 3 groups are Land animals: Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals. ALLAH says:

والله خلق كل دابة من ماء فمنهم من يمشي على بطنه ومنهم من يمشي على رجلين ومنهم من يمشي على اربع يخلق الله ما يشاء ان الله على كل شيء قدير

Allâh has created every moving (living) creature from water. Of them there are some that creep on their bellies, some that walk on two legs, and some that walk on four. Allâh creates what He wills. Verily! Allâh is Able to do all things. (24:45)

The living creatures are divided into 3 groups:
  1. Those that creep on its belly, thus it’s the Reptile Group.
  2. Walk on 2 legs, which match the Birds Group.
  3. Walk on 4 legs, which is the mammal group.
Therefore, the classification of Quran for living Land animals matches with scientific classification too.


4.    Animal Nations

[Science]

Quoted from Wikipedia – Social Animal

A social animal is a loosely defined term for an organism that is highly interactive with other members of its species to the point of having a recognizable and distinct society. Gorillas and other higher primates are noted as having similarly complex social structures.

All mammals (and birds) are social to the extent that mothers and offspring bond. The term "social animal" is usually only applied when there is a level of social organization that goes beyond this, with permanent groups of adults living together, and relationships between individuals that endure from one encounter to another.

Animal societies may exhibit one of more of these behaviors:
  • cooperative rearing of young by the group
  • overlapping generations living in a permanent, as opposed to seasonal, group
  • cooperative foraging or hunting
  • cooperative defense from predators and competitors
  • social learning (such as a young chimpanzee learning by observation to use a twig to fish for termites). [5]

[Quran]

The following verse clearly states that all animals whether those that walk or fly live in communities similar to humans:

وما من دابة في الارض ولا طائر يطير بجناحيه الا امم امثالكم ما فرطنا في الكتاب من شيء ثم الى ربهم يحشرون

There is not a moving (living) creature on earth, nor a bird that flies with its two wings, but are communities like you. We have neglected nothing in the Book, then unto their Lord they (all) shall be gathered. (6:38)


5.    Animal Migration

[Science]

Quoted from: Examples of Animals Migration

Humpback whales of the Pacific Ocean head south in the fall to give birth to their young in subtropical waters off Hawaii, and then in late spring head north to spend the summer in the cold waters off Alaska that are rich with food.

Salmon are reproductive migrants that start their lives in freshwater streams, move to the open ocean for their adult lives, then return to their home stream to lay eggs.

Sea turtles return from ocean waters to the coast to lay eggs in the sand, where they hatch and head to the open ocean until it is their turn to lay eggs. They are another example of reproductive migrants. [6]

[Quran]

Understanding from the above examples that such Animals live in certain regions, but migrate to another to give birth to their young, this type of Animals migration is mentioned in the following verse:
وما من دابة في الارض الا على الله رزقها ويعلم مستقرها ومستودعها كل في كتاب مبين

And no (moving) living creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allâh. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposit; all is in a Clear Book. (11:6)

The verse clearly mentions that such Animals (Dabah), that Allah has its provision, and he knows its dwelling place where they usually live most of the year, and its deposit (Moustawda’aha) which means literally the: storehouse, where these Animals store its eggs or give birth to its young, till they migrate again to their dwelling place.



6.    Animal Navigation

Quoted from: Revealed: secret of how birds navigate during migration

The mystery of how migratory birds exploit the Earth's magnetic field using an internal compass may have been solved by scientists who have discovered how molecules in the eye can be orientated by weak magnetic lines.

About 50 species of animals are known to use the direction of Earth's magnetic field to help them find their way, but scientists have been mystified as to how they could do it because the field seems to be too weak to have an effect on the nervous system.

Now, though, scientists have come up with a possible method based on a series of complex photochemical reactions that can occur within the eyes of birds, as well as other animals, which could help them use an internal compass. [7]
As explained in next image [8]:



[Quran]

We understand from above that bird and other animals have kind of biological compass in their forehead from which they can sense direction, now let’s read the following verse: 

اني توكلت على الله ربي وربكم ما من دابة الا هو اخذ بناصيتها ان ربي على صراط مستقيم

"I put my trust in Allâh, my Lord and your Lord! There is not a moving (living) creature but He has grasp of its forelock. Verily, my Lord is on the Straight Path (the truth). (11:56)

ALLAH clearly states that he grasps all animals from their forelock and using the verb grasp indicates the movement of creatures, as if saying that ALLAH controls all the motions of the animals from their forelock, which indicates to their biological compass explained above.


7.    Animal Ecosystem

Quoted from: Ecosystem

An ecosystem refers to all the living organisms and their non-living environment within a given area. Note that this definition includes two components; the living component which consists of the animals, plants and microbes, and the non-living component which refers to the air, water, rocks, soil and weather.

There is no limit to how large or small an ecosystem can be. An ecosystem can be as large as an ocean or as small as a puddle. Very large ecosystems are known as biomes. An important point to recognize about ecosystems is the interaction between a grouping of plants and animals and their non-living environment and how the two strive to achieve a balance.

Ecology relates to the study of ecosystems. Scientists who study the different components of ecosystems and how they are related to one another are called ecologists. Ecologists have determined that the populations of many species if left undisturbed by humans will remain relatively unchanged over time. Why then are so many species becoming extinct? Today, extinction rates are thousands of times greater than the natural rate. [9]

[Quran]

ALLAH says in the following verse:
وكاين من دابة لا تحمل رزقها الله يرزقها واياكم وهو السميع العليم

And so many a moving (living) creature carries not its own provision! Allâh provides for it and for you. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. (26:60)

The verses distinguish from the domestic animals that carry its provision which means is fed by its owner, and those animals that are being fed by ALLAH and this is done through the Ecosystem explained above, which without Human factor, such systems are highly balanced and species will not extinct that easily as in our days. The following figures shows some of ecosystem charts [10] [11]:




8.    Animal Sleeping

Quoted from Wiki-answers: Nocturnal Diurnal

Animals that SLEEP at night (and are awake in the DAY) are called DIURNAL. Animals that are awake at night and sleep during the day are NOCTURNAL. [12]

Quoted from Wikipedia: Diurnal

Animals that are not diurnal might be nocturnal (active at night) or crepuscular (active primarily during twilight, i.e., at dusk and dawn). Many animal species are diurnal, including many mammals, insects, reptiles and birds. In some animals, especially insects, external patterns of the environment control the activity (exogenous rhythms, as opposed to patterns inherent in the habitat). [13]

Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by activity during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal" (e.g., Bats are nocturnal.).

Nocturnal animals generally have highly developed senses of hearing and smell, and specially adapted eyesight. Some animals, such as cats & ferrets, have eyes that can adapt to both low-level and bright day levels of illumination (see metaturnal). Others, e.g. bushbabies and (some) bats, can function only at night. Many nocturnal creatures have eyes that seem to be "too big" compared to the rest of their head and body like tarsiers and some owls.

Diurnal animals, e.g. squirrels, songbirds, etc., are active during the daytime. Crepuscular species, i.e. rabbits, skunks, and hyena, are often erroneously referred to as nocturnal. Cathemeral species, like fossas and lions, are active both day and night. [14]

[Quran]

This facts that some animals or plants can sleep at night or day, is mentioned in the following verse:
وله ما سكن في الليل والنهار وهو السميع العليم

And to Him belongs whatsoever resets in the night and the day, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing." (6:13)

The verse doesn’t mean that whatever (i.e. Animals) resets in both day and night, otherwise it will mean that they will keep sleeping all time, but it means the following: sleeps at day or sleeps at night, and this covers both groups mentioned above.


9.    Forbidden Animals (Pork)

Quoted from Wikipedia: Cysticercosis

Cysticercosis refers to tissue infection after exposure to eggs of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. The disease is spread via the fecal-oral route through contaminated food and water, and is primarily a food borne disease. After ingestion the eggs pass through the lumen of the intestine into the tissues and migrate preferentially to the brain and muscles. There they form cysts that can persist for years.

Lifecycle

The life cycle involves humans as a definite host and pigs as an intermediate host. Pigs ingest contaminated food or water that contains eggs or proglottids from human’s feces. The ova develop into cysticercus in pig muscles. Human becomes infected when they ingest raw or undercooked “measly pork” that contains viable cysticercus. Upon reaching the small intestine, the scolex attaches to the intestinal wall and a proglottid chain grows. T. solium releases three to six proglottids/day, bearing 30,000 to 70,000 eggs (ova) per proglottid into the intestine. Nearly 250,000 ova are passed daily into the human feces and to the environment, and the cycle continues.

Limitations

Even with the concurrent treatment of humans and pigs, complete elimination is hard to achieve. In one study conducted in 12 villages in Peru, both humans and porcine were treated with praziquantel and oxfendazole, with the coverage of more than 75% in humans and 90% in pigs. The result shows a decreased in prevalence and incidence in the intervention area; however the effect did not completely eliminate T. solium. The possible reason includes the incomplete coverage and re-infection. Even though T. solium could be eliminated through mass treatment of human and porcine population, it is not sustainable. Moreover, both tapeworm carriers of humans and pigs tend to spread the disease from endemic to non-endemic areas resulting in periodic outbreaks of cysticercosis or outbreaks in new areas.

Limitations of vaccines

Even though vaccines have been successfully generated, the feasibility of its production and usage in rural free ranging pigs still remains a challenge. If a vaccine is to be injected, the burden of work and the cost of vaccine administration to pigs will remain high and unrealistic. The incentives of using vaccines by pig owners will decrease if the vaccine administration to pigs takes time by injecting every single pig in their livestock. An oral vaccine is proposed to be more effective in this case as it can be easily delivered to the pigs with the food, though no one has ever achieved it yet. [15]



Quoted from: Symptoms

In general muscular/subcutaneous cysticercosis does not cause symptoms, however in severe infections with a large number of cysticerci, one may be able to feel or see bumps under the skin. Muscle cysticercosis may casue pain and hypertrophy and dead and calcified cysts will show up quite clearly on x-rays and often cause inflammations due to the immune system’s response. Muscular/subcutaneous cysticercosis is the least prevalent type, but there are areas of India with prevalence as highs as 10%.

Neurocyticercosis is by far the most prevalent and dangerous form of cysticercosis. At any time during infection neurocysticercosis caused by living or dead cysticerci can cause a host of different symptoms (pleomorphic) including headaches, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, neurologic changes, acute confusion, increased intracranial pressure, focal neurologic deficit, intellectual deficit, and perhaps most importantly epilepsy. [16]


[Quran]

ALLAH by his mercy and wisdom knows how the swine flesh is dangerous on human body, how much damage can cause and how it’s impossible to be treated, because of that he forbidden eating it, ALLAH says:
حرمت عليكم الميتة والدم ولحم الخنزير وما اهل لغير الله به

Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maitah (the dead animals - cattle - beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which Allâh’s Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering ... [5:3]

Thanks to ALLAH, Lord of the Worlds.

---------------------------------

References:

[1] The University of Waikato, Plant and Animal Evolution, 2011, http://sci.waikato.ac.nz/evolution/AnimalEvolution.shtml

[2] ActionbioScience.Org, Evolution, Fact and Theory, 2011, http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/lenski.html

[3] ScienceDaily.com, Evolution in Action, Jan.8, 2009, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090105101501.htm


[5] Wikipedia, Social Animal, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_animal




[9] MrsKingBioWeb.com, Ecological Terms, http://mrskingsbioweb.com/ecosystem.html

[10] Michigan State University, Biogeochemical Cycles, Carbon, https://www.msu.edu/course/isb/202/ebertmay/2004/notes/snotes/01_26_06_CO2.html

[11] Bordalier Institute, Bio-Chemistry, http://www.bordalierinstitute.com/target1.html#bio-chemistry


[13] Wikipedia, Diurnality, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diurnality

[14] Wikipedia, Nocturnality, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nocturnality

[15] Wikipedia, Cysticercosis, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cysticercosis

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