Thursday, May 10, 2012

The Story of Creation (17-C): Evolution and Spreading of Early Humans after Adam…


1-     DNA deterioration (Aging, Graying)
2-     Humans Genetics Drifting
3-     “Out of Africa” vs. “Out-of-Arabia” Theory?
4-     Tribes and Nations
5-     Arabia Nature during Prehistory Times

Before start talking about the Prophets, lets mention some important facts about Humans development after Adam mentioned in the holy Quran and compare them with Science recent findings.

1- DNA deterioration (Aging, Graying)

Following to Part 17 (Adam & Eve), we mentioned that Humans creation were huge in size and lived for long age, that can reach 1000 of years, and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) mentioned in one of his Hadiths that Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) was the first one to see the gray hair over his head, and this indication that ageing was not common in Early humans but appeared in later generations. But can we prove this scientifically? Let’s see..


Quoted from - Aging and Death May be a Product of Evolution [1]:

We think of aging as undesirable, something that inevitably occurs in all living things and that we as humans would like to avoid or eliminate altogether.
The science of aging research has discovered that aging and death indeed occurs in all living things and is highly conserved across all species.  Theories to date have consistently postulated that aging and death happens due to failures in cells from work and environmental insult, increasing inability to correct such damage and eventual senescence of the cell.

In a new thesis, scientist André C. R. Martins of the University of San Paolo Brazil proposes that aging and death like every other process in living things may actually be a desirable product of evolution, and not due to failure after all.

It is clear that living things, humans included, have comprehensive, precise, and redundant systems for repairing damage and largely rejuvenating cells and organs.  It would make sense, therefore that creatures could live indefinitely.  However, contrary to this there does seem to be an intrinsic preprogrammed system designed to ensure the animal ages and dies.

Quoted from: Is the DNA of mankind deteriorating at a little with each new generation? [2]

These data confirm human devolution and suggest imminent permanent genetic extinction in this century.

"In 1997 from genetic testing, the estimate was that everyone on average carried six genetic disorders (Gargus, 1997). The extrapolation suggests that by 2033 the average for every man, woman and child may be 60 or more genetic disorders. The data indicate that the greatest mass extinction in the history of the planet is in progress in nonhuman life forms at a rate of 30,000 extinctions per year and accelerating (Leakey and Lewin, 1996, Chapter 13; Mass Extinction References, 1998). The clear message is that mutations accelerate the permanent extinction of all life forms, including humans. There can be no greater imperative than educating students and parents to those facts."

Quoted from: Is the DNA of mankind deteriorating at a little with each new generation? [3]

Recently a top geneticist used a computer to classify known mutations; his results were 186 beneficial mutations vs. 453,732 harmful mutations. That's a ratio of 1 to 2,439! There's no way any species could live long enough to evolve if every "good" change in a genotype or phenotype was followed by thousands of bad ones. See Sanford, J., Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome, Lima, NY, Elim Publishing, 2005, pg. 26.

"Dr. John Sanford, a retired Cornell Professor, shows in Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome that the "Primary Axiom" is false. The Primary Axiom is the foundational evolutionary premise - that life is merely the result of mutations and natural selection. In addition to showing compelling theoretical evidence that whole genomes cannot evolve upward, Dr. Sanford presents strong evidence that higher genomes must in fact degenerate over time. This book strongly refutes the Darwinian concept that man is just the result of a random and pointless natural process. "


From above explanation, we understand the following:
  • Human system as any other living system has a repair mechanism to repair and replace its damaged cells, but it stops on certain time where person will start ageing.
  • There are evidences that ageing is an evolution process that is continuously developing.
  • DNA human is deteriorating and more genetic disorders will appear in future on humans that we never saw before.
In the following verse, there is an indication to reverse of a system that cause Ageing, ALLAH says:
ومن نعمره ننكسه في الخلق افلا يعقلون

And he whom We grant long life, We reverse him in creation (weakness after strength). Will they not then understand? (36:68)

The verse refer to something that is reversed in human body that causes him to be back in creation, which can be referred only to the repairing system that will stop and cause aging.

The following Hadith mentions clearly that before End Times "Deformation" will be common and clearly noticed in humans, and this can be caused by DNA deterioration (ALLAH knows better if it will be the only cause).

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) says:

بين يدي الساعة مسخ ، و خسف ، و قذف- الراوي: عبدالله بن مسعود المحدث: الألباني السلسلة الصحيحة -   خلاصة: صحيح بشواهده
“Before the Last Hour comes, there will be Deformation (in humans), (Land) Subsidence, and Stoning (From sky).”

2- Humans Genetics Drifting


Quoted from: Genetic Distance between Autochthonous Human Populations [4]

"Genetic drift" is the phenomenon by which small mutations in DNA (or RNA, and the proteins that are coded by them) add random variations over time to genetic material.

Between human populations, there is always much less than 0.1% difference. What these differences are and how much they vary can be used to construct a tree showing the relationships between human populations.

Another interesting feature of the chart is the closeness of American Indians to modern population across Europe, the Middle East, and northern East Asia. Thus, curiously, Europeans are more closely related to American Indians than to Polynesians. Finally, it is noteworthy that skin color is not at all helpful is providing clues to genetic affinity. The darkest colored people on earth, in Africa, India, Melanesia, and Australia, are scattered between groups that are only distantly related. Dark skin color is certainly a function of living under the equatorial sun for many generations, but all human populations have the genetic wherewithal to make that adaptation.


As explained above that due to genetics drifting in humans new races were created from previous races that may not have same attributes such as: skin color, height, hair, eyes, lips, etc…

Such important concept in genetics is mentioned in the following miraculous verse in the Holy Quran:

وربك الغني ذو الرحمة ان يشا يذهبكم ويستخلف من بعدكم ما يشاء كما انشاكم من ذرية قوم اخرين

And your Lord is Rich (Free of all wants), full of Mercy, if He wills, He can destroy you, and in your place make whom He wills as your successors, as He raised you from the seed of other people. (6:133)

The verse clearly mentions that God can replace us or any group of humans by other people very easily, similarly as he created them from other (different) people seeds! Of course before understanding genetics it was difficult to understand what does it mean.

The following chart shows that journey of human races and how new races were developed during their human journey, the data and figures in the below chart is taken from National Geography - Genographic project website.[5]

3- “Out of Africa” vs. “Out-of-Arabia” Theory?


Quoted from: New Research Confirms 'Out Of Africa' Theory Of Human Evolution [6]

ScienceDaily (May 9, 2007) — Researchers have produced new DNA evidence that almost certainly confirms the theory that all modern humans have a common ancestry. The genetic survey.

The research confirms the “Out Of Africa” hypothesis that all modern humans stem from a single group of Homo sapiens who emigrated from Africa 2,000 generations ago and spread throughout Eurasia over thousands of years. These settlers replaced other early humans (such as Neanderthals), rather than interbreeding with them.

Until now, one of the main reasons for doubting the “Out Of Africa” theory was the existence of inconsistent evidence in Australia. The skeletal and tool remains that have been found there are strikingly different from those elsewhere on the “coastal expressway” – the route through South Asia taken by the early settlers.

Some scholars argue that these discrepancies exist either because the early colonists interbred with the local Homo erectus population, or because there was a subsequent, secondary migration from Africa. Both explanations would undermine the theory of a single, common origin for modern-day humans.

But in the latest research there was no evidence of a genetic inheritance from Homo erectus, indicating that the settlers did not mix and that these people therefore share the same direct ancestry as the other Eurasian peoples.

Quoted from: Following the First Steps out of Africa [7]

Science-Daily (Jan. 26, 2012) — The timing and pattern of the migration of early modern humans has been a source of much debate and research. 

"A major unanswered question regarding the dispersal of modern humans around the world concerns the geographical site of the first steps out of Africa," explains senior study author, Dr. Luísa Pereira from the Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto in Portugal (IPATIMUP). "One popular model predicts that the early stages of the dispersal took place across the Red Sea to southern Arabia, but direct genetic evidence has been thin on the ground."

The researchers found evidence for an ancient ancestry within Arabia. Professor Richards, who is now Professor of Archaeogenetics at the University of Huddersfield, concludes: "Taken together, our results suggest that Arabia was indeed the first staging-post in the spread of modern humans around the world."

Quoted from: Could the World All Be Genetically Arab, Says New DNA Evidence [8]

Many scholars believe our forefathers left the Horn of Africa and headed north, which would take them to what is now Egypt. From there, it is theorised, they spread through North Africa and the Levant to the rest of the world.

But another theory suggests the world's first modern immigrants might have taken a different route: the so-called southern route through Yemen and across the Arabian Peninsula.
This would mean that most non-Africans in the world today are descended from those pioneers who made their home in what are now Arab lands.

That view is supported by a research paper released in an American journal last month.
In it, an international team of scientists explains how they used sophisticated genetic analysis techniques to come up with new evidence supporting the view that Arabia was indeed the first place where our migrating ancestors settled.

According to one of the academics involved in the study, it is likely that they passed along the southern coast of the peninsula before crossing into the territory that today makes up the UAE.
Professor Martin Richards of the University of Leeds said: "The timing and pattern of the migration of early modern humans has been a source of much debate and research.
"Our new results suggest that Arabia, rather than North Africa or the Near East, was the first staging post in the spread of modern humans around the world."
The research was led by the by the UK's University of Leeds and the University of Porto in Portugal.


In the following verse, the first house built on Earth was Al-Kaabah in Arabia, ALLAH says:

إِنَّ أَوَّلَ بَيْتٍ وُضِعَ لِلنَّاسِ لَلَّذِي بِبَكَّةَ مُبَارَكًا وَهُدًى لِّلْعَالَمِينَ 96 فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَّقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّه غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ  97

Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-'Alamîn (the mankind and jinn). (96) In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqâm (place) of Ibrâhim (Abraham); whosoever enters it, he attains security. And Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Ka'bah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allâh, those who can afford the expenses (for one's conveyance, provision and residence); and whoever disbelieves [i.e. denies Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah), then he is a disbeliever of Allâh], then Allâh stands not in need of any of the 'Alamîn (mankind and jinn and all that exsists). (3:97)


In the following Hadith, it’s mentioned that Adam and Eve “Hawwa” were the first who built the house of God, Al-Kaaba in Makkah (Saudi Arabia), and Adam was the first man to perform pilgrimage ever, but later on "House of God" was destroyed during following centuries till Noah who built it again, but also was destroyed till the times of Ibrahim and his son Ishmael who rebuilt it, then Ishmael's sons with the surrounding Arabs maintained the Kaabah till our days:

بعث الله جبريل إلى آدم وحواء فقال لهما ابنيا لي بيتا فخط لهما جبريل فجعل آدم يحفر وحواء تنقل حتى أجابه الماء نودي من تحته حسبك يا آدم فلما بنيا أوحى الله تعالى إليه أن يطوف به وقيل له أنت أول الناس وهذا أول بيت ثم تناسخت القرون حتى حجه نوح ثم تناسخت القرون حتى رفع إبراهيم القواعد منه
الراوي: عبدالله بن عمرو بن العاص المحدث: ابن كثير - المصدر: البداية والنهاية - الصفحة أو الرقم: 2/277. خلاصة حكم المحدث: تفرد به ابن لهيعة هكذا مرفوعا وهو ضعيف ووقفه على عبد الله بن عمرو أقوى وأثبت.


Question: Why Scientists like to mention that Africa is the original of Human species?

The reason is because most of what is called Human Erectus' remains were found so close to the Equator in Africa, so in order to complete the missing link of Human evolution (from ape to Human) they wanted to link between them, as a result of finding "Human" ancestors in Africa then early humans must left and dispersed from there too.

But in reality, many researchers say that such remains are for apes and there is no clear evidence that these belong to humans, and linking together is only to complete the story that Atheists like to repeat.

But as mentioned above, the most recent study shows that first existing of Humans was in Arabia, and being all linked to African attributes (brown skin) is because Adam was brown, and as explained in the Hadiths and verses, it shows that Adam and his wife and later on their children lived mainly in Arabia, but they were traveling a lot over Earth and all the south Coast of Asia till India, and may be further.

4- Tribes and Nations


Quoted from Wikipedia - Nation [9]

A nation may refer to a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, and/or history. In this definition, a nation has no physical borders. However, it can also refer to people who share a common territory and government (for example the inhabitants of a sovereign state) irrespective of their ethnic make-up.

Quoted from Wikipedia - Tribe [10]

A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally, consists of a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. Many anthropologists use the term tribal society to refer to societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups (see clan and kinship).

Some theorists hold that tribes represent a stage in social evolution intermediate between bands and states. Other theorists argue that tribes developed after, and must be understood in terms of their relationship to, states.


As explained above that humans social evolution start from family, bands, tribes, till nations and states. But during the early humans times they lived all for centuries as one nation.

They stayed like one nation till the early humans start diverting from their original religion and form worshiping the only God "ALLAH", who he sent them Prophets and Messengers to guide them back to the straight path. But, they started to divide into different nations, and every group and tribe traveled into different direction, and start to colonize separated regions on Earth, mainly the reason is that believers left the unbelievers main group and tried to live far from them, and build their own society.

The following verses from Quran and Hadith give indication to this evolution sequence:

The Early Humans lived as one nation before Prophets and Messengers came to them, and Noah was the first Messenger between him and Adam (although there were other prophets before him like Seth and Idriss), and we estimated that it was almost 10 generations between Adam and Noah or 10,000 years (ALLAH knows better).

ALLAH says:

كان الناس امة واحدة فبعث الله النبيين مبشرين ومنذرين وانزل معهم الكتاب بالحق ليحكم بين الناس فيما اختلفوا فيه وما اختلف فيه الا الذين اوتوه من بعد ما جاءتهم البينات بغيا بينهم فهدى الله الذين امنوا لما اختلفوا فيه من الحق باذنه والله يهدي من يشاء الى صراط مستقيم

Mankind were one community and Allâh sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it after clear proofs had come unto them through hatred, one to another. Then Allâh by His Leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allâh guides whom He wills to a Straight Path. (2:213)

وما كان الناس الا امة واحدة فاختلفوا ولولا كلمة سبقت من ربك لقضي بينهم فيما فيه يختلفون

Mankind were but one community, then they differed (later), and had not it been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord, it would have been settled between them regarding what they differed (10: 19)

The division of one nation into tribes and nations is mentioned in the following verse:

يا ايها الناس انا خلقناكم من ذكر وانثى وجعلناكم شعوبا وقبائل لتعارفوا ان اكرمكم عند الله اتقاكم ان الله عليم خبير

O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you with Allâh is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa [i.e. he is one of the Muttaqûn (pious - see V.2:2). Verily, Allâh is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (49:13)


As we mentioned before that because of the flood, Noah is the second Father for all humans after Adam, his three sons were the second fathers of the main groups in the world which matches with the genetic division of the humans: African, North Eurasian, and South Asian. The main division of Early humans into 3 groups is mentioned in the following Hadith:

ولد نوح ثلاثة : فسام أبو العرب، و حام أبو الحبشة، و يافث أبو الروم - الراوي: عمران بن حصين و سمرة بن جندب المحدث: السيوطي - المصدر: الجامع الصغيرخلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

“Noah had three: Sam father of Arabs (South Asian), Ham father of Ethiopian (African), Japheth father of Roman (Eurasian).

The below chart is one of many that shows the division of human races into 3 main groups, but not necessary it matches exactly what is mentioned in Hadith as it’s not final, and scientists are still updating such trees.

Destruction of old Nations:

Scientists always discussed the reasons behind the extinct of some human groups completely, and some referred that many causes, such as: diseases, fighting with other neighbor nations, or natural disaster.

ALLAH gives the answer for such extinction in many verses in the holy Quran, and it's because the punishment that he sent on the infidels that destroyed them all, and kept some of the homes or constructions just as reminder who may come after them or pass by their villages.

وكم اهلكنا من قرية بطرت معيشتها فتلك مساكنهم لم تسكن من بعدهم الا قليلا وكنا نحن الوارثين

And how many a town (population) have We destroyed, which were thankless for its means of livelihood (disobeyed Allâh, and His Messengers, by doing evil deeds and crimes) ! And those are their dwellings, which have not been inhabited after them except a little. And verily! We have been the inheritors. (28:58)

وكم اهلكنا من القرون من بعد نوح وكفى بربك بذنوب عباده خبيرا بصيرا [17:17]

And how many generations have We destroyed after Nûh (Noah)! And Sufficient is your Lord as an All-Knower and All-Beholder of the sins of His slaves. (17:17)

فكاين من قرية اهلكناها وهي ظالمة فهي خاوية على عروشها وبئر معطلة وقصر مشيد

And many a township did We destroy while it was given to wrong-doing, so that it lies in ruins (up to this day), and (many) a deserted well and lofty castle! (22:45)

وَكَمْ قَصَمْنَا مِن قَرْيَةٍ كَانَتْ ظَالِمَةً وَأَنشَأْنَا بَعْدَهَا قَوْمًا آخَرِينَ 11فَلَمَّا أَحَسُّوا بَأْسَنَا إِذَا هُم مِّنْهَا يَرْكُضُونَ 12لا تَرْكُضُوا وَارْجِعُوا إِلَى مَا أُتْرِفْتُمْ فِيهِ وَمَسَاكِنِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُسْأَلُونَ 13قَالُوا يَا وَيْلَنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ 14فَمَا زَالَت تِّلْكَ دَعْوَاهُمْ حَتَّى جَعَلْنَاهُمْ حَصِيدًا خَامِدِينَ 15

How many a town (community), given to wrong-doing, have We destroyed, and raised up after them another people! (11) Then, when they perceived (saw) Our Torment (coming), behold, they (tried to) flee from it. (12) Flee not, but return to that wherein you lived a luxurious life, and to your homes, in order that you may be questioned. (13) They cried: "Woe to us! Certainly! We have been Zâlimûn (polytheists, wrong-doers and disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh)." (14) And that cry of theirs ceased not, till We made them as a field that is reaped, extinct (dead). (21:15)

5- Arabia Nature during Prehistory Times

As mentioned before in previous part that Earth was passing through an ice age and during that time Arabia was covered by gardens and forests, full of rivers and lakes, as shown in the below images [12][13]:


In the following Hadith, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) mentioned 2 signs of the End Times:
  • The increase of money that if someone wants to give the poor he will not find any who accept to take money.
  • That land of Arabia returns land of gardens and rivers as it was before, and this refers to its nature during the old times or Early humans times.

لا تقوم الساعة حتى يكثر المال ويفيض . حتى يخرج الرجل بزكاة ماله فلا يجد أحدا يقبلها منه . وحتى تعود أرض العرب مروجا وأنهارا .الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: مسلم - المصدر: صحيح مسلم - الصفحة أو الرقم: 157 - خلاصة حكم المحدث: صحيح

Thanks to ALLAH, Lord of the Worlds


[1] Aging and Death May be a Product of Evolution, Extreme Longevity,

[2] Evolution Is Lethal Antiscience, Joseph Mastropaolo,

[4] Genetic Drift,  Genetic Distance Between Autochthonous Human Populations

[5] The genorgraphic Project, National Geographic,

[6] New Research Confirms 'Out Of Africa' Theory Of Human Evolution, ScienceDaily

[7] Following the First Steps out of Africa, Science Daily,

[9], Nation,

[10], Tribe,

[11] The various options for the migration out of Africa, For what they were, we are,

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