Wednesday, September 19, 2012

The Story of Creation (18 - E): Prophet Yusuf, Prophet Mosses and the Pharaoh of Egypt…

Index:

Prophet Yusuf "Joseph" (PBUH)

1- Egypt ruled by "Kings"
2- The name of the minister was Al-Aziz
3- The Drought of 7 years Long

Prophet Mosses (PBUH) 

1- Torturing Children of Israel by the Pharaohs
2- The Pharaoh is the King of all Egypt
3- "Haman" the Prime Minister of the Pharaoh
4- Building the pyramids, Why and How?
5- Pharaoh of the stakes  (dowels) !!
6- Karoun, Pharaoh and Haman were all during Mosses times
7- Karoun swallowed by Earth with his house and treasures
8- Festival of "Ornament, Decoration" Day
9- Forcing to Learn Magic
10- The Drought during Mosses Times
11- Egypt Cities and Military Alert System
12- Destruction of Egypt state and the rise of Israel Kingdom

Scientific Explanation

1- Unification of Egypt under one nation and the "Pharaoh" naming
2- Who built the Pyramids? The Stakes?
3-  Building the Pyramids from boiled Clay as mentioned in Quran:
4- The Lake of "Karoun" near Fayum
5- Which Festival Day that is named as "Decoration" Day?
6- Magic of the Early Egyptians and the Priests
7- Egyptian Old Cities
8- Assembly of Old kingdom Army
9- Drought and destruction of Old Kingdom
10- The Meal of Early Egyptians
11- The Cow in Ancient Egyptian Religion

Conclusion
-------------------------

Introduction

In this article, we will discuss some of Quran verses that describe life and natural events that happened during the times of Prophets Yusuf and Mosses (PBUT).

The following verses are related to ancient Egyptian civilization and how it looked like, and some major events that happened during that time. But, scholars and experts of this domain may figure the exact dates of such events, and they may find their correct sequence.

Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) (PBUH) 

Prophet Yusuf was the 3rd generation after Ibrahim, he was the son of Jacob, son of Isaac, son of Ibrahim. His story is well known and it's mentioned both in Old Testament and Holy Quran.

The following verses show 3 main aspects of ancient Egypt during Prophet Yusuf times:


1- Egypt ruled by "Kings", Egypt rich of resources

ALLAH says:

وَقَالَ الْمَلِكُ ائْتُونِي بِهِ أَسْتَخْلِصْهُ لِنَفْسِي فَلَمَّا كَلَّمَهُ قَالَ إِنَّكَ الْيَوْمَ لَدَيْنَا مَكِينٌ أَمِينٌ  54 قَالَ اجْعَلْنِي عَلَى خَزَائِنِ الأَرْضِ إِنِّي حَفِيظٌ عَلِيمٌ 55 وَكَذَلِكَ مَكَّنَّا لِيُوسُفَ فِي الأَرْضِ يَتَبَوَّأُ مِنْهَا حَيْثُ يَشَاء نُصِيبُ بِرَحْمَتِنَا مَن نَّشَاء وَلاَ نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ 56

And the king said: "Bring him to me that I may attach him to my person." Then, when he spoke to him, he said: "Verily, this day, you are with us high in rank and fully trusted." (54) [Yûsuf (Joseph)] said: "Set me over the storehouses of the land; I will indeed guard them with full knowledge" (as a minister of finance in Egypt). (55) Thus did We give full authority to Yûsuf (Joseph) in the land, to take possession therein, when or where he likes. We bestow of Our Mercy on whom We will, and We make not to be lost the reward of Al-Muhsinûn (the good doers - see V.2:112) (12:54-56)

And this refers to a period of Egypt history when it was governed by "Kings" not by "Pharaohs", or such title did not exist yet.

Also, the above verse shows that Egypt was a rich country, especially in food supplies where it was able to store food for few years in advance.


2- The name of the ministers was Al-Aziz  (The Most Honored, The Mighty):

In the following verse, brothers of Yusuf called him as "Al-Aziz" when he was the minister of Egypt responsible for storing and distributing food to all Egypt people and surrounding nations.

فَلَمَّا دَخَلُواْ عَلَيْهِ قَالُواْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْعَزِيزُ مَسَّنَا وَأَهْلَنَا الضُّرُّ وَجِئْنَا بِبِضَاعَةٍ مُّزْجَاةٍ فَأَوْفِ لَنَا الْكَيْلَ وَتَصَدَّقْ عَلَيْنَا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَجْزِي الْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ 88 قَالَ هَلْ عَلِمْتُم مَّا فَعَلْتُم بِيُوسُفَ وَأَخِيهِ إِذْ أَنتُمْ جَاهِلُونَ 89

Then, when they entered unto him [Yûsuf (Joseph)], they said: "O ruler of the land! O Most Honored (Mighty), A hard time has hit us and our family, and we have brought but poor capital, so pay us full measure and be charitable to us. Truly, Allâh does reward the charitable." (88) He said: "Do you know what you did with Yûsuf (Joseph) and his brother, when you were ignorant?" (12:88-89)

Knowing that "Al-Aziz" must be translated as "Mighty, or the most honored" and not the "Ruler of the land", and experts may find such title in their studies to ancient Egyptian history.


3- The Drought of 7 years Long

During the life of Yusuf (PBUH), Egypt suffered of drought which lasted for 7 years long: 

يُوسُفُ أَيُّهَا الصِّدِّيقُ أَفْتِنَا فِي سَبْعِ بَقَرَاتٍ سِمَانٍ يَأْكُلُهُنَّ سَبْعٌ عِجَافٌ وَسَبْعِ سُنبُلاتٍ خُضْرٍ وَأُخَرَ يَابِسَاتٍ لَّعَلِّي أَرْجِعُ إِلَى النَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ  46 قَالَ تَزْرَعُونَ سَبْعَ سِنِينَ دَأَبًا فَمَا حَصَدتُّمْ فَذَرُوهُ فِي سُنبُلِهِ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً مِّمَّا تَأْكُلُونَ 47 ثُمَّ يَأْتِي مِن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ سَبْعٌ شِدَادٌ يَأْكُلْنَ مَا قَدَّمْتُمْ لَهُنَّ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً مِّمَّا تُحْصِنُونَ 48 ثُمَّ يَأْتِي مِن بَعْدِ ذَلِكَ عَامٌ فِيهِ يُغَاثُ النَّاسُ وَفِيهِ يَعْصِرُونَ 49

(He said): "O Yûsuf (Joseph), the man of truth! Explain to us (the dream) of seven fat cows whom seven lean ones were devouring, and of seven green ears of corn, and (seven) others dry, that I may return to the people, and that they may know." (46) [(Yûsuf (Joseph)] said: "For seven consecutive years, you shall sow as usual and that (the harvest) which you reap you shall leave it in ears, (all) - except a little of it which you may eat. (47) "Then will come after that, seven hard (years), which will devour what you have laid by in advance for them, (all) except a little of that which you have guarded (stored) (48) "Then thereafter will come a year in which people will have abundant rain and in which they will press (wine and oil)." (12:46-49)

Definitely, such event might affected the natural of Egypt, surrounding nations, global temperature and sea level.


Prophet Mosses (PBUH)

Mosses is one of Jacob (Israel) descendants, who born in Egypt and his very famous story was filmed many times. But let's review some of the events that accompanied the time of Mosses as described in the following verses:


1- Torturing Children of Israel by the Pharaohs

The following verses remind that Children of Israel who were severely tortured by the Pharaohs, and how God had saved them:

وَإِذْ نَجَّيْنَاكُم مِّنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ يُذَبِّحُونَ أَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَاءكُمْ وَفِي ذَلِكُم بَلاء مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌ 49 وَإِذْ فَرَقْنَا بِكُمُ الْبَحْرَ فَأَنجَيْنَاكُمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ  البقرة 2: 49-50

And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir'aun's (Pharaoh) people, who were afflicting you with a horrible torment, killing your sons and sparing your women, and therein was a mighty trial from your Lord. (49) And (remember) when We separated the sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir'aun's (Pharaoh) people while you were looking (at them, when the sea-water covered them). (2;49-50)

Scholars must find the exact time when such behavior started and what caused it, and how the Israeli position was moved from being closed and favored to the governor during the "King" times to slaves and servants during the "Pharaohs" times. Did politics interfered in such change? Were they supporting the old kings who were defeated by the new Pharaohs?


2- The Pharaoh is the King of all Egypt:

In the following verse, the Pharaoh reminds his people that he is the king of Egypt, means all Egypt including all the rivers that pass through it, and this covers the upper Egypt and lower Egypt for sure:

ونادى فرعون في قومه قال يا قوم اليس لي ملك مصر وهذه الانهار تجري من تحتي افلا تبصرون

And Fir'aun (Pharaoh) proclaimed among his people, (saying:) "O my people! Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me. See you not then? (43:51)


3- "Haman" the Prime Minister of the Pharaoh

The following verse mentions the name of "Haman" and being the soldiers of Egypt were the soldiers of Pharaoh and Haman:

وَنُمَكِّنَ لَهُمْ فِي الأَرْضِ وَنُرِي فِرْعَوْنَ وَهَامَانَ وَجُنُودَهُمَا مِنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَحْذَرُونَ 28: 6

And to establish them in the land, and We let Fir'aun (Pharaoh) and Hâmân and their soldiers receive from them that which they feared. (6:28)

Which means that Haman was acting as prime minister to the Pharaoh and has the authority to lead his army too. This name is different from the Persian "Haman" mentioned in the bible, and some may get confused from this, but those are two different stories, and similar names doesn’t require that they are the same persons. More details will follow about the Egyptian "Haman" in the following section.


4- Building the pyramids, Why and How?

In the following verse, it shows that Pharaoh has ordered Haman to build a great structure:

وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلَأُ مَا عَلِمْتُ لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَهٍ غَيْرِي فَأَوْقِدْ لِي يَا هَامَانُ عَلَى الطِّينِ فَاجْعَل لِّي صَرْحًا لَّعَلِّي أَطَّلِعُ إِلَى إِلَهِ مُوسَى وَإِنِّي لَأَظُنُّهُ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ 38 وَاسْتَكْبَرَ هُوَ وَجُنُودُهُ فِي الأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْنَا لا يُرْجَعُونَ  28: 38-39

Fir'aun (Pharaoh) said: "O chiefs! I know not that you have an ilâh (a god) other than me, so kindle for me (a fire), O Hâmân, to bake (bricks out of) clay, and set up for me a Sarh (a lofty tower, or palace) in order that I may look at (or look for) the Ilâh (God) of Mûsa (Moses); and verily, I think that he [Mûsa (Moses)] is one of the liars." (38) And he and his soldiers were arrogant in the land, without right, and they thought that they would never return to Us. (28:38-39)


From this verse, we can conclude the following:

-        Haman is not only the chief of Army, but he is responsible for building too, so it supports that idea that he was the prime minister or someone with the highest position in the State after the Pharaoh, and he could be a closed relative too.

-      The structure that was ordered must be huge and high, so the Pharaoh may climb on and see God of Mosses (as he thought he could), being mentioned in Quran, this structure must be the "Pyramid" and it probably be whether the first pyramid or the biggest one !!.

-        Since the Pharaoh knows that way of building the Pyramid from boiling clay, so it's possible that first step Pyramid (made from clay) was already built, and we are talking about a new Pyramid but much higher.

-        The reason was not to bury the Pharaoh inside as most of scientists think, but it was to see God, but later on, it becomes a habit or sign of strength and power for the Pharaohs.


5- Pharaoh of the stakes  (dowels) !!

In the following verse, it describes Pharaoh of the stakes (pegs, dowels):

وَفِرْعَوْنَ ذِي الأَوْتَادِ 10 الَّذِينَ طَغَوْا فِي الْبِلادِ 11 فَأَكْثَرُوا فِيهَا الْفَسَادَ  89: 10-12

And (with) Fir'aun (Pharaoh), of the stakes (to torture men by binding them to stakes)? (10) Who did transgress beyond bounds in the lands (in the disobedience of Allâh). (11) And made therein much mischief. (12) So your Lord poured on them different kinds of severe torment. (89:10-13)

Until now, nobody knows exactly what is meant by this verse, but most of interpreters refer these stakes to the "torturing method" that Pharaoh used to do for the prisoners, but it could mean other things, such as using the dowels for designing the pyramids or raising the roofs.


6- Karoun, Pharaoh and Haman were all during Mosses times

The following verses clearly shows that Mosses came to the Pharaoh, Karoun and Haman and this proves that they were all at the same time.

وَقَارُونَ وَفِرْعَوْنَ وَهَامَانَ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُم مُّوسَى بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَاسْتَكْبَرُوا فِي الأَرْضِ وَمَا كَانُوا سَابِقِينَ 29: 39

And (We destroyed also) Qârûn (Korah), Fir'aun (Pharaoh), and Hâmân. And indeed Mûsa (Moses) came to them with clear Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), but they were arrogant in the land, yet they could not outstrip Us (escape Our punishment). (29:39)

If any of the findings shows one of these names then it will indicate the exact time when Prophet Mosses was sent to Children of Israel and what was the name of (Mosses) Pharaoh.

Note, Karoun was one of the Israeli, but it's not necessary the same mentioned in the bible as "Korah" because both were absorbed by land, but Karoun story happened before people of Israel run away from Egypt and reached Sinai, Karoun was killed before as we will see later.


7- Karoun swallowed by Earth with his house and treasures

ALLAH says:

فَخَرَجَ عَلَى قَوْمِهِ فِي زِينَتِهِ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا يَا لَيْتَ لَنَا مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ قَارُونُ إِنَّهُ لَذُو حَظٍّ عَظِيمٍ 79 وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ وَيْلَكُمْ ثَوَابُ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنْ آمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَلا يُلَقَّاهَا إِلاَّ الصَّابِرُونَ 80 فَخَسَفْنَا بِهِ وَبِدَارِهِ الأَرْضَ فَمَا كَانَ لَهُ مِن فِئَةٍ يَنصُرُونَهُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ المُنتَصِرِينَ 81

So he went forth before his people in his pomp. Those who were desirous of the life of the world, said: "Ah, would that we had the like of what Qârûn has been given! Verily, he is the owner of a great fortune." (79) But those who had been given (religious) knowledge said: "Woe to you! The Reward of Allâh (in the Hereafter) is better for those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and this none shall attain except those who are As-Sabirun (the patient in following the truth)." (80) So We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling place. Then he had no group or party to help him against Allâh, nor was he one of those who could save themselves. (28:79-81)

These verses clearly state that Qaroun was swallowed by Earth with all his houses and treasures, servants, etc…, and this mustn't be in Sinai and after crossing the sea, it happened before that time, and definitely on Egypt main land. Of course, it was impossible to carry all these treasures with him while crossing to Sinai, so he must be swallowed in Egypt.


8- Festival of "Ornament, Decoration" Day

ALLAH says:

فَلَنَأْتِيَنَّكَ بِسِحْرٍ مِّثْلِهِ فَاجْعَلْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكَ مَوْعِدًا لّا نُخْلِفُهُ نَحْنُ وَلا أَنتَ مَكَانًا سُوًى 58 قَالَ مَوْعِدُكُمْ يَوْمُ الزِّينَةِ وَأَن يُحْشَرَ النَّاسُ ضُحًى 59

"Then verily, we can produce magic the like thereof; so appoint a meeting between us and you, which neither we, nor you shall fail to keep, in an open wide place where both shall have a just and equal chance (and beholders could witness the competition)." (58) [Mûsa (Moses)] said: "Your appointed meeting is the day of decoration (festival), and let the people assemble when the sun has risen (forenoon)." (20-58:59)

When he wanted to challenge Moses and to bring his magicians, the Pharaoh asked for an appointment, Moses chose the day of festival or "Ornament day" to guarantee that huge number of Egyptian people will see the challenge, and how with help of God, Mosses will defeat the Pharaoh and all his magicians.

This festival day (Ornament day) must be mentioned in Pharaohs history for sure.


9- Forcing to Learn Magic

ALLAH says:

فَأُلْقِيَ السَّحَرَةُ سُجَّدًا قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِرَبِّ هَارُونَ وَمُوسَى 70 قَالَ آمَنتُمْ لَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ آذَنَ لَكُمْ إِنَّهُ لَكَبِيرُكُمُ الَّذِي عَلَّمَكُمُ السِّحْرَ فَلَأُقَطِّعَنَّ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُم مِّنْ خِلافٍ وَلَأُصَلِّبَنَّكُمْ فِي جُذُوعِ النَّخْلِ وَلَتَعْلَمُنَّ أَيُّنَا أَشَدُّ عَذَابًا وَأَبْقَى 71 قَالُوا لَن نُّؤْثِرَكَ عَلَى مَا جَاءَنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالَّذِي فَطَرَنَا فَاقْضِ مَا أَنتَ قَاضٍ إِنَّمَا تَقْضِي هَذِهِ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا 72 إِنَّا آمَنَّا بِرَبِّنَا لِيَغْفِرَ لَنَا خَطَايَانَا وَمَا أَكْرَهْتَنَا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ السِّحْرِ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَى 73

So the magicians fell down prostrate. They said: "We believe in the Lord of Hârûn (Aaron) and Mûsa (Moses)." (70)
[Fir'aun (Pharaoh)] said: "Believe you in him [Mûsa (Moses)] before I give you permission? Verily! he is your chief who has taught you magic. So I will surely cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will surely crucify you on the trunks of date-palms, and you shall surely know which of us [I (Fir'aun Pharaoh) or the Lord of Mûsa (Moses) (Allâh)] can give the severe and more lasting torment." (71)
They said: "We prefer you not over what have come to us, of the clear signs And to Him (Allâh) Who created us. So decree whatever you desire to decree, for you can only decree (regarding) this life of the world. (72)
"Verily! We have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults, and the magic to which you did compel us. And Allâh is better as regards reward in comparison to your [Fir'aun's (Pharaoh)] reward, and more lasting (as regards punishment in comparison to your punishment)." (20:70-73)

In their reply to the Pharaoh, the magicians mentioned the magic that he forced them to learn, and this gives indication to the level that magic was used in Ancient Egyptian, and how the Pharaohs used it, may be to scare his enemies or even his own people, and how he may forced young or children to learn magic, many questions came from this expression need to be searched for.


10- The Drought during Mosses Times

ALLAH says:
وَلَقَدْ أَخَذْنَا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ بِالسِّنِينَ وَنَقْصٍ مِّن الثَّمَرَاتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ 130:7

And indeed We punished the people of Fir'aun (Pharaoh) with years of drought and shortness of fruits (crops), that they might remember (take heed). (7:130)

As result of refusing the call of Moses and not responding to God order to free the people of Israel, Egypt suffered from many natural disasters during the time of Mosses, including the draughts that hit Egypt land and caused the loss of food, of course drought in Egypt means Nile river had extreme low levels.


11- Egypt Cities and Military Alert System

ALLAH says:

فَأَرْسَلَ فِرْعَوْنُ فِي الْمَدَائِنِ حَاشِرِينَ 53 إِنَّ هَؤُلاء لَشِرْذِمَةٌ قَلِيلُونَ  54 وَإِنَّهُمْ لَنَا لَغَائِظُونَ  55  وَإِنَّا لَجَمِيعٌ حَاذِرُونَ 56 فَأَخْرَجْنَاهُم مِّن جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ  26: 53-57

Then Fir'aun (Pharaoh) sent callers to (all) the cities. (53) (Saying): "Verily! these indeed are but a small band. (54) "And verily, they have done what has enraged us; (55) "But we are host all assembled, amply fore-warned." (26:53-56)

When Moses run away from Egypt with Children of people at night (not during day), the Pharaoh sent alert to all cities to collect the army and to chase them, and this show 2 things that they had many cities and it's the first time used in Quran as "cities" when describing the residence of people (knowing that Quran described the people of A'ad living in villages, which means less people gathered in many distributed spots, but for Egyptian "cities" was used).
Second, that Egyptian army was distributed in different cities and then assembled upon Pharaoh's command.

كَمْ تَرَكُوا مِن جَنَّاتٍ وَعُيُونٍ  25 وَزُرُوعٍ وَمَقَامٍ كَرِيمٍ 26  وَنَعْمَةٍ كَانُوا فِيهَا فَاكِهِينَ  27 كَذَلِكَ وَأَوْرَثْنَاهَا قَوْمًا آخَرِينَ 28

How many of gardens and springs that they [Fir'aun's (Pharaoh) people] left behind, (25) And green crops (fields) and goodly places, (26) And comforts of life wherein they used to take delight! (27) Thus (it was)! And We made other people inherit them. (28) [44:25-28]

Some explained that "other people" could be Israel who inherited the land of Palestine, but it could be mean by another family of Pharaohs (Dynasty) who controlled Egypt.


12- Destruction of Egypt state and the rise of Israel Kingdom


ALLAH says:

وَأَوْرَثْنَا الْقَوْمَ الَّذِينَ كَانُواْ يُسْتَضْعَفُونَ مَشَارِقَ الأَرْضِ وَمَغَارِبَهَا الَّتِي بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ الْحُسْنَى عَلَى بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ بِمَا صَبَرُواْ وَدَمَّرْنَا مَا كَانَ يَصْنَعُ فِرْعَوْنُ وَقَوْمُهُ وَمَا كَانُواْ يَعْرِشُونَ 7: 137

And We made the people who were considered weak to inherit the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof which We have blessed. And the fair Word of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel, because of their endurance. And We destroyed completely all the great works and buildings which Fir'aun (Pharaoh) and his people erected (7:137)

This verse clearly correlates between the rise of Israel state and the destruction of Pharaoh's state (palaces, gardens, etc..), and it could be the end of dynasty (or Old kingdom) by a civil war, the same time when Children of Israel entered Palestine land and started to build their own state.


Scientific Explanation

Can we prove any of the above signs in our days? Were any of them discovered recently?
Let's see…

1- Unification of Egypt under one nation and the "Pharaoh" naming

Quoted from: The Ancient Egypt Site

Before 3200 BC, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms. Upper and Lower Egypt, or southern and northern Egypt respectively (Upper Egypt was the southern kingdom and vice versa due to the flow of the Nile River), was not united into one single nation until 3150 BC.

Around this time, King Narmer of Upper Egypt, the southern kingdom of Egypt, conquered Lower Egypt, a kingdom ruled by an entirely different king. In 1897 the earliest recorded historical document, called the Narmer Palette, was discovered. On this palette were the earliest hieroglyphs and a historical record, including the portrayals of the Egyptian kings, including the unification of Egypt.

The Pharaoh of the New Egypt, the unified Egypt, was not only a political leader in charge of the strong central government but also the religious leader, and his rule was seen as divine to the people, which explains the relapse back to the pharaoh, or "Great House", even after a government would collapse. The centralization of the government in one religious and "divine" person allowed the pharaoh to dictate large monuments and pyramids to be built in their honor only hundreds of years after Narmer united all of the Egyptians. [1]

Analysis:

This means the Joseph times were before unification of Egypt, and most probably lived in upper Egypt before it was concurred later on by the upper Egypt king who become later on the Pharaoh. This can give a valid reason on what caused the relation to be deteriorated between the new Pharaoh and the Israeli who were supported by the previous kings of upper Egypt.


2- Who built the Pyramids? The Stakes?

Building first Pyramids from Clay:

In the following movie from discovery channel it mentions how the Pyramids were built from clay and who designed them first:



The name of Master builders

In the book of Chronicles of the Pharaohs [2], mentioned in page 47, that Chief of workers is named as "Hemon" and thought to be the cousin of the Pharaoh Khufu ,which is a very closed name to the one mentioned in Quran as "Haman" who was ordered by the Pharaoh to build the pyramid.


Of course, different spelling for the names "Haman" & "Hemon" doesn't make so much difference, knowing that spelling words in Arabic, Aramaic or Latin, will require different vowel letters, but since the root of the words are the same in both words: H-M-N, then they are mostly the same name for the same person.
Similarly, when Quran mentions the name of Marry as Mariyam, or Shaoul as Talout, or David as Dawod, it's because the pronunciation of names in different languages.

3-  Building the Pyramids from boiled Clay as mentioned in Quran:

The following description explains one of the hypothesis that scientist suggest for building the Pyramids and its matches exactly the same method mentioned in Quran:

Quoted from Wikipedia: Egyptian pyramid construction techniques

Limestone concrete hypothesis

Materials scientist Joseph Davidovits has claimed that the blocks of the pyramid are not carved stone, but mostly a form of limestone concrete and that they were "cast" as with modern concrete. According to this hypothesis, soft limestone with a high kaolinite content was quarried in the wadi on the south of the Giza Plateau. The limestone was then dissolved in large, Nile-fed pools until it became a watery slurry. Lime (found in the ash of cooking fires) and natron (also used by the Egyptians in mummification) was mixed in.  

The pools were then left to evaporate, leaving behind a moist, clay-like mixture. This wet "concrete" would be carried to the construction site where it would be packed into reusable wooden moulds and in a few days would undergo a chemical reaction similar to the "setting" of concrete. New blocks, he suggests, could be cast in place, on top of and pressed against the old blocks. Proof-of-concept tests using similar compounds were carried out at a geopolymer institute in northern France and it was found that a crew of five to ten, working with simple hand tools, could agglomerate a structure of five, 1.3- to 4.5-ton blocks in a couple of weeks. He also claims that the Famine Stele, along with other hieroglyphic texts, describe the technology of stone agglomeration….

Davidovits' hypothesis recently gained support from Michel Barsoum, a materials science researcher. Michel Barsoum and his colleagues at Drexel University published their findings supporting Davidovits' hypothesis in the Journal of the American Ceramic Society in 2006. Utilizing scanning electron microscopy, they discovered mineral compounds and air bubbles in samples of the limestone pyramid blocks that do not occur in natural limestone.[3] 



4- The Lake of "Karoun" near Fayum

In the following explanation, we see that Karoun Lake in Egypt is a very new natural lake, recorded around 3000 BC (+/-) only, and discovering some ancients houses near the lake, all refers that this Lake may be created after Earth had swallowed Karoun and all his treasures and houses. Imagine how much Gold can be found under this lake if deep research was done beneath this lake??

Quoted from Wikipedia - Faiyum Oasis (Karoun Lake)

Eventually the Nile valley bed silted up high enough to let the Nile in flood overflow into the Faiyum hollow and make a lake in it. The lake is first recorded from about 3000 BC, around the time of Menes (Narmer). However, for the most part it would only be filled with high flood waters. The lake was bordered by neolithic settlements, and the town of Crocodilopolis grew up on the south where the higher ground created a ridge.

In 2300 BC, the waterway from the Nile to the natural lake was widened and deepened to make a canal which is now known as the Bahr Yussef. This canal fed into the lake. This was meant to serve three purposes: control the flooding of the Nile, regulate the water level of the Nile during dry seasons, and serve the surrounding area with irrigation.

There are, especially in the neighborhood of the lake, many ruins of ancient villages and cities. Mounds north of the city of Faiyum mark the site of Crocodilopolis. In January 2008, Egypt's supreme council of antiquities announced the discovery of an ancient city of farmers dating back to 5200 BC. The site, which probably sat at the edge of Faiyum lake at the time, is still largely buried in the sand, although excavations have revealed walls and houses built of terracotta and limestone, along with foundations of ovens and grain stores. [4]


5- Which Festival Days that is named as "Decoration" Day?

Quoted from: Grand Festivals in Ancient Egypt

Most of the festivals took place were fixed within the civil calendar. They either took place on a specific date, or were spread out through a number of days. Such festivals are typically called "annual festivals" by scholars.

Heb-Sed Festival

One of the most significant aspects of this festival is that it was probably witnessed by citizens only once in a lifetime. The Heb-Sed Festival was usually celebrated 30 years after a king’s rule and thereafter, every three years. This very important ritual symbolized regeneration and was meant to assure a long reign in the pharaoh’s afterlife. [5]

More elaborate scenes, later than the Early Dynastic Period, give as the setting for this ceremony a series of shrines pictured as constructions of wood and matting. This form of shrine probably originated as a type of temporary building, and in this context represented another pair of dual symbols, with one design for Lower Egypt and the other for Upper Egypt. Sometimes they were specifically for the cobra-goddess Wadjit of the Delta town of Buto, and the vulture goddess Nekhbet of el-Kab, but they were for other deities as well. There was hence a gathering of provincial images of deities in a series of temporary shrines beside the double throne of the king. [6]
Analysis
It's clear that Heb-Sed Festival is the one meant by Moses as the "Decoration day", because of these decorations and constructions that were built in the ceremony.

6- Magic of the Early Egyptians and the Priests

In the following Paragraph, it shows how magic was important in Ancient Egypt and how only selected young were chosen to learn it, and how they had to pass through strict instructions during their study.

Quoted from: Ancient Egyptian Magic - Magicians

In Egyptian myth, magic (heka) was one of the forces used by the creator to make the world. Through heka, symbolic actions could have practical effects. All deities and people were thought to possess this force in some degree, but there were rules about why and how it could be used.The most respected users of magic were the lector priests. [7]
Quoted from: Priests in Ancient Egypt

Before the priest could enter the innermost parts of the temple, the sanctuary, where the god resided, the priest had to purify himself. This did not involve a spiritual act involving forgiveness of sins, but symbolic of ritual purity, nonetheless. The priest had to perform a series of procedures. There is evidence that at least in the New Kingdom and thereafter, priests shaved their entire bodies, and they cleansed with natron, which was used for everything. They also abstained from certain foods, though this did not involve ritual fasting. Priests were permitted to wear only garments of linen, and white papyrus sandals, no leather or wool.

Priests had to learn writing and reading, and learn certain religious manuals by heart to understand some theology. Ritual texts however, were often read directly from scrolls, not said by heart, since even one word out of place would negate the powerful ritual act in progress.

The highest-ranking priests also attended councils of state in the royal palace, and accompanied the king during his jubilee celebrations or on his trips abroad.[8]


7- Egyptian Old Cities

Quoted from: An Overview of the Cities and Towns of Ancient Egypt

Cities in ancient Egypt grew out of the development of agriculture and the emergence of the state as the unifying and predominant form of political organization. However, even as early as 3500 BC, towns and cities (if they can be called such), consisted of regional capitals linked to the population centers of smaller administrative districts. The term we most frequently apply to these districts is nome, which was actually not used to describe a province until the Greek Period. [9]


8- Assembly of Old kingdom Army from the Cities

Quoted from Military of Ancient Egypt

During the Old Kingdom there was no professional army in Egypt. Governors of each Nome (administrative division) had to raise their own volunteer army. Then, all the armies would come together under the Pharaoh to battle. Because the army was not a very prestigious position, it was mostly made up of lower-class men, who could not afford to train in other jobs. [10]
Miraculously, which is exactly as mentioned in the above verses.


9- Drought and destruction of Old Kingdom within 40 years Period

As explained before that after the exodus of Children of Israel from Egypt, a serious of natural events affected Egypt and the whole state of Pharaohs was collapsing.  This match with the following description for the 4.2 K year event.

Quoted from Wikipedia - 4.2 kiloyear Event

Evidence

A phase of intense aridity in ≈4.2 ka BP is well recorded across North Africa, the Middle East, the Red Sea, the Arabian peninsula, the Indian subcontinent, and midcontinental North America. Glaciers throughout the mountain ranges of western Canada advanced at about this time. Evidence has also been found in an Italian cave flowstone, and in Andean glacier ice.

Ancient Egypt

In ca. 2150 BC the Old Kingdom was hit by a series of exceptionally low Nile floods, which was instrumental in the sudden collapse of centralized government in ancient Egypt. Famines, social disorder, and fragmentation during a period of approximately 40 years were followed by a phase of rehabilitation and restoration of order in various provinces. Egypt was eventually reunified within a new paradigm of kingship. The process of recovery depended on capable provincial administrators, the deployment of the idea of justice, irrigation projects, and an administrative reform. [11]

Note, "The new paradigm of kingship" could explains the "other people" who inherited Egypt that was mentioned in the above verse.


10- The Meal of Early Egyptians

Quoted from The Diet of the Ancient Egyptians

Vegetables

Obviously, even for the poor, other items such as vegetables, fruit and fish were consumed, all gifts of the Nile. They often ate beans, chick peas, lentils and green peas, just as modern Egyptians do today. Leeks and Egyptian lettuce was also popular. garlic were eaten, as well as thought to repel agents of diseases, and onions were popular, as well as being used for medical purposes. [12]

Understanding that Egyptian used to eat lentils, garlic, onion, and other herbs, explains Israelis request to Moses for these vegetables during their settle in Sinai desert, as if they miss the Egyptian food which they used to eat in Egypt, especially "lentils soup", and because of that they asked Moses to ask God to grow for them the ingredients of this soup, as mentioned in the following verse

واذ قلتم يا موسى لن نصبر على طعام واحد فادع لنا ربك يخرج لنا مما تنبت الارض من بقلها وقثائها وفومها وعدسها وبصلها قال اتستبدلون الذي هو ادنى بالذي هو خير اهبطوا مصرا فان لكم ما سالتم وضربت عليهم الذلة والمسكنة وباؤوا بغضب من الله ذلك بانهم كانوا يكفرون بايات الله ويقتلون النبيين بغير الحق ذلك بما عصوا وكانوا يعتدون

And (remember) when you said, "O Mûsa (Moses)! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils and its onions." He said, "Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!" And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the Wrath of Allâh. .... (2:61)


11- The Cow in Ancient Egyptian Religion

Quoted from Wikipedia: Cattle in Religion - Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians sacrificed animals, but not the cow because it was sacred to goddess Hathor, and also due to the contemporary Greek myth of Io, who had the form of a cow.
In Egyptian mythology, Hesat was the manifestation of Hathor, the divine sky-cow, in earthly form. Like Hathor, she was seen as the wife of Ra. In hieroglyphs she is depicted as a cow with a hat.

Analysis

Understanding COW position in old Egyptian religion, explains many things: first why the Israeli took the gold calf as God for them while Moses were on the Tour mountain.

Second, the famous "Cow" story that is mentioned in Quran, which is:

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَنْ تَذْبَحُواْ بَقَرَةً قَالُواْ أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُوًا قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ 67 قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِيَ قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لاَّ فَارِضٌ وَلاَ بِكْرٌ عَوَانٌ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ فَافْعَلُواْ مَا تُؤْمَرُونَ 68 قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا لَوْنُهَا قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ صَفْرَاء فَاقِعٌ لَّوْنُهَا تَسُرُّ النَّاظِرِينَ 69 قَالُواْ ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِيَ إِنَّ الْبَقَرَ تَشَابَهَ عَلَيْنَا وَإِنَّا إِن شَاء اللَّهُ لَمُهْتَدُونَ 70 قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لاَّ ذَلُولٌ تُثِيرُ الأَرْضَ وَلاَ تَسْقِي الْحَرْثَ مُسَلَّمَةٌ لاَّ شِيَةَ فِيهَا قَالُواْ الآنَ جِئْتَ بِالْحَقِّ فَذَبَحُوهَا وَمَا كَادُواْ يَفْعَلُونَ 71

And (remember) when Mûsa (Moses) said to his people: "Verily, Allâh commands you that you slaughter a cow." They said, "Do you make fun of us?" He said, "I take Allâh's Refuge from being among Al-Jâhilûn (the ignorants or the foolish)." (67) They said, "Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!" He said, "He says, 'Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but (it is) between the two conditions', so do what you are commanded." (68) They said, "Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us its colour." He said, "He says, 'It is a yellow cow, bright in its colour, pleasing to the beholders.' " (69) They said, "Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily to us all cows are alike, And surely, if Allâh wills, we will be guided." (70) He [Mûsa (Moses)] said, "He says, 'It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no other colour except bright yellow.' " They said, "Now you have brought the truth." So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it. (2:67-71)

This means that Israeli were so influenced by Egyptians religion during their stay in Egypt, that they honored the "Cow" and took it as symbol of God. Secondly, they refused and hesitated a lot to scarify by it, because of that they said to Moses: "Do you make fun of us?", and God commented on their act: "So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it !!"

Finally, it's explains the whole reason behind the "Cow" sacrifice story, that God through Mosses wanted from the Israeli to get rid from their minds completely and infinitely all Egyptian ancient religion thoughts and symbols, and worship him alone the Mighty God: ALLAH.


Conclusion:

It's clear that Prophet Yusus (Joseph) time was during the Lower Egypt kingdom, he was sold  there by the Bedouins who took him from the well in Palestine Land, and sold him in Egyptians Land next to them. This could happen in the period between 3500 BC - 3100 BC.

After hundreds of years Mosses was born, and it's impossible to be after 3 generations only as mentioned in the bible, because logically it's impossible that Jacob and his sons doubled in 3 generations time from 13 persons (Joseph + 11 brothers+ Jacob) to + 600,000 persons crossing the sea with Moses!!.

Finally, most probably that Pharaoh of Moses was Khufu and not Ramses II like most of Muslims, Christians and Jews scholars like to believe, for reasons that he ordered Haman (Hemon) to build the biggest Pyramid, Karoun Lake created around his time, and his kingdom (dynasty) had collapsed few decades later. 

The reason why his mammy was not found till now? Because he was drawn in the Red Sea after chasing Children of Israel. Knowing that his corpse floated as sign to the Israeli so they don't fear him anymore, and it might be buried in East of Egypt and not in the royal cemeteries, and hopefully in future it will be found.


Thanks to ALLAH, Lord of the Worlds


References 


[1] YahooVoices, The Unification of Egypt in 3150 BC: Making the First True Nation, http://voices.yahoo.com/the-unification-egypt-3150-bc-making-first-3307062.html?cat=37

[2] Scribd.com, Chronicles of the Pharaohs, http://www.scribd.com/doc/69869913/Chronicles-Pharaohs

[3] Wikipedia, Egyptian pyramid construction techniques, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pyramid_construction_techniques

[4] Wikipedia, Faiyum Oasis, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faiyum_Oasis





[9] TourEygpt.net, An overview of the Egyptian Cities, http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/cities.htm

[10] Wikipedia, Military of Ancient Egypt, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_of_ancient_Egypt

[11] Wikipedia.com, 4.2 kiloyear event, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4.2_kiloyear_event

[12] TourEgypt.net, The Diet of the Ancient Egyptian, http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/diet.htm

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